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35tbltotbeaue Oe Catabas 

VOL. X, 

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Barlaam anb Josapbat 

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Ai (he Ballantyne Press 



Barlaam and Josaphat 

O friend, who siitest young yet wise 

Beneath the Bo-tree s shade. 
Confronting life with kindly eyes, 

A scholar unafraid 

To follow thought to any sea 

Or back to any fount, 
' Tis modern parables to me 

From thy instruction mount. 

Was Barlaam. truly Josaphat, 

And Buddha truly each ? 
What better parable than that 

The unity to preach — 

The simple brotherhood of souls 

That seek the highest good ; 
He who in kingly chariot rolls. 

Or wears the hermit's hood! 

The Church mistook f These heathen once 

Among her Saints to range I 
That deed of some diviner dunce 

Our wisdom would not change. 

For Culture's Pantheon they grace 

In catholic array. 
Each Saint hath had his hour and place. 

But now 'tis All Saints' Day. 


October 27, 1895 




I TRUST I shall not be accused of overstepping 
the bounds of modesty if I confess from the 
start that I have chiefly reprinted the accom- 
panying versions of the legend of Barlaam 
and Josaphat in order that I might write the 
Introduction to them. The English versions 
of the Barlaam legend are but poor things, 
contracted and truncated to such an extent 
that scarcely anything remains of their resem- 
blance to the original. Of the five or six ver- 
sions extant in English, I have selected that 
one which first appeared in print, viz., Caxton's 
treatment in his Golden Legend, and the last 
that appeared in print independently, a Chap- 
book in verse, kindly placed at my disposal by 
Mr. G. H. Skipwith. 

I have not, however, confined myself to the 
English versions in the Introduction, which deals 


generally with the history of the legend, which 
forms one of the most remarkable episodes in 
the history of literature. The fact that by its 
means Buddha had been, if only informally, 
canonised a Saint of the Church, would be 
enough to attract attention to it. But many of 
the parables enframed in the legend have had a 
history even more remarkable than the legend 
itself. As is well known, the Caskets story of 
the Merchant of Venice is ultimately derived 
from Barlaam and Josaphat. 

I have for some time been making rather 
extensive collections for the Introduction to 
this work, in order to make it a companion 
study to my treatment of the Fables of Bidpai 
and jEsop in the same series. But all that I 
have collected, and much more also, has been 
put together by Dr. Ernst Kuhn in a contri- 
bution to the Ahhandlungen of the Bavarian 
Academy of Science (Munich, 1893). This is 
one of those erudite bibliographical monographs 
in which German scholarship excels ; and in all 
those portions of my Introduction, which deal 
with the bibliographical aspects of the question, 
and notably in the pedigree and appendices, I 
make grateful use of Dr. Kuhn's researches. 

I have, however, ventured to differ at times 
from the conclusions which Dr. Kuhn draws 
from the elaborate series of scholarly facts 
which he has brought together in his mono- 
graph. In the second of my Appendices I 
have been able to add here and there some 
further references beyond those collected by 
Dr. Kuhn, while I may flatter myself that I 
have arranged all that he has collected in 
a form more easy of access to the folk-lore 
student. I have endeavoured to separate the 
scaffolding of scholarship from the goodly fabric 
which the results of recent research has erected 
with some toil. But in order to do this I have 
been obliged to relegate to the Appendices 
several good stories and apologues which I can 
recommend to the reader. It has been my 
aim to bring within moderate compass a concise 
statement of the results already reached about 
this remarkable legend, with full bibliographical 
references to the critical discussions, where the 
student can find exact details on the many 
points of interest or obscurity with which the 
whole subject bristles. 






P.5.— Through the kindness of Mr. J. S. 
Cotton, I have been enabled to see a work on 
Barlaam published at Calcutta in 1895 as a 
text-book in English. It contains, curiously 
enough, the Caxton Barlaam which I have also 
given. It has besides a reprint of the three 
Middle English legends edited by Dr. Horst- 
mann, as well as an eighteenth century tract. 
The editor, Dr. K. S. Macdonald, is unac- 
quainted with Kuhn's researches, and devotes 
his Introduction mainly to disproving the 
possibility of Christianity having been influ- 
enced by Buddhism. 


Buddha and Christ, it may be said, represent 
the two highest planes which the religious 
consciousness of mankind has hitherto reached. 
Each in his way represents the Ideal of a whole 
Continent. The aim of Asia has always been 
To Be, the aim of Europe, To Do. The con- 
templative Sage is the highest ideal of Asia. 
Europe pins its faith to the beneficent Saint. 
Both Ideals, to a modern and decadent world, 
have lost some of their attractiveness. For 
Sage we are inclined to read Prig and Bore, 
and it is considered an appropriate fate for 
the good young man that he should die early. 
There is a sense of pose in the attitude of any one 
who nowadays would set up as Saint or Sage, 
which irritates us moderns, who do nothing if 
we do not pose. Besides, the trail of profes- 


sionalism is over us all, and the Professional 
Saint (Cleric or Philanthropist), or Professional 
Sage (Thinker or Professor), is an abomination. 
Yet while Virtue and Wisdom remain goals of 
human striving, the Ideals of Christ and the 
Buddha must retain their attraction. 

Diverse as are the aims of the Christian and 
of the Buddhistic schemes, their methods are 
remarkably similar. They have a common 
enemy in what is known in Christian parlance 
as the World. The pleasures of the senses and 
the pride of power are the chief forces which 
deflect men from the paths of Wisdom and 
of Virtue. Till the New Man comes, who shall 
synthesise all four Ideals, the Christian- Budd- 
hist plan of Renunciation must remain the 
necessary prerequisite of salvation. 

The similarity of the two schemes extends 
far beyond their general plan. The legend 
of the founders presents a remarkable set of 
parallels — the Annunciation, the Massacre of 
the Innocents, the Temptation in the Wilder- 
ness, the Marriage at Cana, the Walking 
on the Water, the Transfiguration, find* 

* The most recent enumeration of these parallels is by 
Dr. Cams in the Monist, October, 1894. Many of them 


parallels more or less close in the Legend of 
the Buddha. 

Both taught by parables, and in several in- 
stances the subject of their parables is the 
same {Soicer : Prodigal Son: Seed and Soil). 
Much of their teaching is similar. The stress 
laid on the spirit as against the letter, the 
opposition between riches and spirituality, the 
inwardness of purity, are equally insisted upon 
in both systems. The formation of a Brother- 
hood or Church has been in each case the 
cause of giving permanent effect to the ideals 
of the founders, and as is well known even 
the external* cultus have many points of 

It is natural that such marked similarities 
should give rise to thoughts of the dependence 
of the later Christian on the earlier Buddhistic 
system. There was fully time since Alexander's 
visit to India for some knowledge of Buddhism 
to percolate Syria. Just as Jesus was entering 

are discussed in an apologetic sense by Dr. T. S. Berry in 
the "Donnellan Lectures," Christianity and Buddhism 
(S. P. C. K.). 

* The Jesuit missionaries in Tibet were astonished to 
find many minute similarities between the religious cere- 
monies of the Lama and of the Pope. 


upon his public career, a Buddhistic Sage from 
India created a great sensation throughout the 
Hellenistic world by causing himself to be 
burnt alive at Athens (Strabo, XY. i. 73).* 
And the fame of this self-immolation must 
have reached Judea, for Josephus refers to it 
in a speech which he, following the example 
of Livy, put in the mouth of Eleazar (TFars, 
VII. viii. 7). But it must be confessed that 
no other evidence can be adduced of the actual 
spread of Buddhistic doctrines in Western 
Asia, and the whole case for the dependence 
of Christianity on Buddhism would have to be 
solvedjiiLjjolIslore principles. In other words, 
till jFolklorejnas become so much of a Science 
as to be able to discriminate between foreign 
and independent origin, this question must 
remain an open one. 

But there is one piece of evidence, though 
of much later date, which has at least a reflex 
bearing on the question. If we can show that 
in the fifth or sixth century Buddhistic legends 
and doctrines percolated as far at least as 
Syria, and there became inextricably combined 
with Christian dogmas and legends, it becomes 

♦ See my Bidpai, p. xlviii. 


more probable that a similar mixture of Bud- 
dhism and Judaism had taken place in Babylon 
or Syria in the first century. Such evidence is 
afforded, as is now well known, by the Legend 
of SS. Barlaam and Josaphat, which, beside 
being one of the curiosities of literature, is 
thus seen to be of considerable theological 


The Greek Barlaam 

In the great Menology of the Greek Church, 
under date August 26, stands the entry [ixvi^firj] 
Tov ocriov 'Iwacra^, vlov ^AjSevrjp rov f^acriXcws. 

In the Martyrologium Romanum, under date 
November 27, stands the entry, *' Apud Indos 
Persis finitimos {commemoratio) sanctorum Bar- 
laam et Josaphat, quorum ados mirandos sanctus 
Joannes Damascenus conscripsit" 

When these entries came into the respective 
martyrologies is somewhat difficult to say. In 
the Greek Church it was not till after the tenth 
century, for the Menology of the Emperor 
Basilius contains no reference to Joasaph. In 
the Romish martyrologies the first mention of 
Josaphat among the Saints was in the Cato- 
logus Sanctorum of Peter de Natalibus (ob. 
1370). It may be conjectured in the latter 
case that Barlaam and Josaphat owed their 


inclusion in the saintly calendar, as in the 
" Golden Legend " of Jacobus de Voragine, to 
the popularity of the parables which, as we 
shall see, were connected with their name. 
But in any case, the ultimate source of each 
entry is to be found in the life of the two 
Saints, attributed to St. John of Damascus. 
In fact, the Eoman martyrology in the form 
given to it by the great Baronius, and just 
quoted, expressly states that fact. 

It must not be supposed that the inclusion 
of these names in the lists of the Saints is of 
equal validity with the formal process known 
as "Canonisation." It is usually stated in 
summing up the inquiries on which we are 
about to enter that " Buddha has been canon- 
ised as a Saint of the Catholic Church," and 
much searching of heart has been caused to 
earnest Catholics by this statement. But M. 
Cosquin has conclusively shown in a special 
article devoted to the subject {Revue des Ques- 
tions Historiques, October, 1880) that there is 
all the difference in the world between the two 
processes. Inclusion in the calendar only 
implies a verdict similar to that of a magis- 
trate's court or a Grand Jury ; a prima facie 



case for sainthood has been made out. Before 
canonisation can be obtained, the searching 
cross-examination of the Avvocato del Diavolo 
must be triumphantly sustained. Modern 
scholarship has acted the part of the Devil's 
Advocate with the result that the next edition 
of the Eoman Martyrology will not, in all pro- 
bability, contain the names of Barlaam and 

But that these mysterious personages have 
been regarded by clergy and laity as veritable 
Saints of the Church, there can be no doubt. 
Sir Henry Yule visited a church at Palermo 
dedicated * ' Divo Josaphat. " * In 1 5 7 1 the Doge 
Luigi Mocenigo presented to King Sebastian 
of Portugal a bone and part of the spine of 
St. Josaphat. When Spain seized Portugal 
in 1580 these sacred treasures were removed 
by Antonio, the Pretender to the Portuguese 
crown, and ultimately found their way to 
Antwerp. On August 7, 1672, a grand pro- 
cession defiled through the streets of Antwerp, 
carrying to the cloister of St. Salvator the 
holy remains of St. Josaphat. There, for ought 

* It is, however, just possible that this refers to a Polish 
saint of that name of the seventeenth century. 


I know to the contrary, they remain to the 
present day. 

But while Catholic Christendom had no 
doubt as to the reality of these Saints, Catholic 
scholarship was by no means positive as to 
the authorship of the Legend of the Saints. 
The Greek MSS. attributed it to " John, Monk 
of the Convent of St. Saba," or St. Sinai. It 
is only in the latest MSS. that this Monk 
John is directly identified with John of 
Damascus, a somewhat distinguished theo- 
logian of the eighth century. He was the 
only ecclesiastical writer of the name of John 
to whom the book could be attributed, and 
scholarship, like Nature herself, abhors a 
vacuum. And so the book of Barlaam and 
Joasaph has been included among the works of 
John of Damascus ever since his editors have 
collected them together. Yet they have not 
been without their doubts, and they always 
felt themselves obliged to defend the inclu- 
sion of the book. One of his editors indeed, 
Lequien, went so far as to exclude it altogether 
from the authentic works. The whole ques- 
tion has been carefully threshed out by M. 
Zotenberg in his Notice sur le Livre de Barlaam 


(Paris, 1886). He may fairly be said to have 
disposed of the claims of John of Damascus. 
He points out that the style of the book is 
superior in purity, correctness, and richness 
to that of the recognised works of John of 
Damascus. The defenders of the authorship 
had pointed to similarities of doctrine in ecclesi- 
astical matters in the Barlaam and in the 
recognised writings of John of Damascus. M. 
Zotenberg in his case traces the similarity to 
a common source. Apart, however, from these 
negative arguments, M. Zotenberg has, by a 
careful scrutiny of the theology of Barlaam, 
arrived at an ingenious crucial difference 
between the views expressed in the book and 
those known to be held by John of Damascus. 
Each decade of the earlier centuries of Chris- 
tianity can be distinguished by its fashionable 
heresy. The years 620-38 were dominated in 
Christian theology by the discussion of the 
exact relations of the human and divine Will 
in Christ. I do not profess to understand the 
minutiae of the discussion, and my readers 
will probably be grateful to me if I profess 
the heresy of Lord Dundreary with regard 
to it. But it seems that the Christian world 


of the East was divided between Dyotheletism, 
which recognised two Wills in Christ, and 
Monotheletism, which fuses the two into one. 
The decisive moment in the controversy came 
in 633, when Cyrus of Alexandria promulgated 
his Nine Articles, by which Monotheletism 
became incumbent on the orthodox. Now the 
book of Barlaam is distinctly Dyotheletic in 
tendency, and by this subtle means we are 
therefore led by M. Zotenberg to the conclu- 
sion that its date must be anterior at least to 
the year 633. On the other hand, a terminus 
a quo is given for the book by the fact that 
the Convent of St. Saba was refounded by 
that Saint in the year 491. 

M. Zotenberg went a step further in deter- 
mining the age of the book by a careful exa- 
mination of the historical background involved 
in it. The Religions of the world are stated 
to be three : Idolatry, Judaism, Christianity. 
Hence M. Zotenberg infers that the book was 
written previous to the marvellous spread of 
Islam in the seventh century. And in the par- 
ticular form of Idolatry professed by Abenner, 
King of the Indians and father of Joasaph, 
clear reference is to be found in the tenets of 


Mazdeism under the later Sassanides of Persia. 
The idolaters are spoken of in the book as 
Chaldeans, and their faith as worship of the 
elements. There is a Chief of the Magi referred 
to, whose relations with the King of the 
" Indians " exactly corresponds to the position 
of the supreme Mobed in the Sassanide King- 
dom. Grappling more closely with his subject, 
M. Zotenberg then points out common traits 
of Abenner and Chosroes the Great of Persia 
(531-79). Both kings are distinguished by 
their devotion to duty and to the national 
faith, and at the same time by their interest 
in, and inquiries about, competing creeds. It 
is besides a remarkable fact that Anushzad, 
son of Chosroes, was imprisoned for a rebellion, 
for which the motive was mainly religious. 
Finally, the great disputation between the 
Magi and the Christians in the Barlaam finds 
a remarkable parallel in a similar public dis- 
putation held circa 525 before Kobad, King of 
Persia, and his son Chosroes. To these argu- 
ments of M. Zotenberg, connecting Barlaam 
with the reign of Chosroes, I would add the 
fact that it is with his reign that a well- 
founded tradition associates the first stage 


westward of the Fables of Bidpai, which have 
so many points of similarity with the Parables 
of Barlaam. 

M. Zotenberg's arguments with regard to 
the Greek text and its date have been recently 
reinforced by two remarkable discoveries that 
have been made with regard to its sources. 
One of the striking episodes of the book is 
where Nachor is made to take the place of the 
holy hermit Barlaam, with the intention that 
he should make a feeble defence of Christianity 
in a public disputation between the two faiths 
which is about to be held before the wavering 
Josaphat. Nachor is accordingly about to play 
the part of a " bonnet " or confederate when he 
is forced by Josaphat to play fair, and accord- 
ingly delivers a glowing defence of the Christian 
Religion which routs his opponents. Changing 
the venue, the incident might have been taken 
from one of Capt. Hawley Smart's novels. 

It would seem that Nachor either distrusted 
his own abilities, or had not time to get up his 
case, for a recent discovery has shown that he 
unblushingly borrowed the whole of his defence 
from an earlier Apologia. Among the treasures 
of early patristic literature which have been 


discovered of recent years at the Monastery of 
Mount Sinai is a Syriac version of the Ajpology 
of Aristides. This was a second century treatise 
in defence of the faith, supposed to be addressed 
to the Emperor Hadrian. Eusebius appears to 
be the last person who had seen it, and it was 
supposed to have been irrevocably lost when 
Professor Rendell Harris printed and translated 
the Syriac version of it, which he had discovered 
on Mount Sinai. His friend, Prof. J. Armitage 
E-obinson,"* recollected that he had seen some- 
thing very like it in Barlaam and Josapliat, and 
on comparing the two it was clear that the Greek 
Barlaam preserved a very large proportion of 
the original text. 

This remarkable discovery naturally set theo- 
logians on the search for other traces of early 
Christian literature in the Barlaam, and sure 
enough, in another portion of the book, a sort 
of early Divine Comedy, Prof. Armitage Robin- 
son discovered a direct " crib " from the Vision 

* Prof. Robinson's discovery was made known in the first 
fascicule of the Cambridge Texts and Studies. A useful 
reconstruction of the text from the Greek and from the 
Syriac and Armenian versions has been recently produced 
by E. Hennecke as part of Gebhardt and Harnack's Texte 
und Uniersuchungen (iv. 3, 1893). 


of Satunis in the Passio S. Perpetuce* while 
other portions seem to show acquaintance with 
the still more recently discovered Apocalypse of 
Peter. Finally, it has been also observed that 
parts of the Greek Barlaam are derived from 
the Scheda Regia of Agapetus, finished in July 
527. As there are no traces of the continued 
existence of the earlier works later than the 
sixth century, and as Agapetus' work had not 
much vogue for more than the few years after 
its appearance, it is clear that we can fix the 
date of the Greek Barlaam within a few years + 
600 A.D.f 

* This forms the second fascicule of the Texts and 

t Mr. F. C. Conybeare informs me that he is inclined to 
date the Greek text later, owing to references occurring in 
it to the Iconoclastic controversy. 

^ j^ JWL i|p.!P 


The Oriental Versions 

In arriving at some result as to the date of 
the Greek text we have certainly got to a 
station on the line of tradition which, as we 
shall see later, branches off in all directions 
right throughout Europe. But it remains to 
be seen whether this station is a terminus, 
a starting-point from which the train of tradi- 
tion leaves with more or less of punctuality, or 
merely a junction towards which many of the 
branch lines converge. Even if we decided that 
the Greek text was a terminus a quo with regard 
to written tradition, we might have still to in- 
vestigate whether its contents had not been 
brought to the Greek-speaking world by the 
mouths of men, and there transferred from the 
pack saddles of oral tradition to the broad gauge 
of literature. 

The first of these questions to be settled is 


clearly whether the Barlaam exists in an earlier 
literary form than the Greek text. At first 
sight Prof. Robinson's discoveries would seem 
to settle that question in a most decisive way. 
If the Greek text contains, as integral portions, 
slices of earlier Greek, it is almost impossible 
that these could have been introduced in the 
text except in a Greek form. And indeed, if 
the quotations from the Apology of Aristides 
and other early Christian texts were essential 
portions of the romance, the originality of its 
Greek form would be established beyond ques- 
tion. But these are clearly excrescences which 
could be removed or replaced without much 
derangement of the main plan, and we must 
look about to see if any versions exist which 
do not contain them. 

Several such versions have been discovered 
in quite recent years. An Arabic one, running 
to no less than 286 pages, was printed in 
Bombay under the title Kitdb Balauhar wa- 
BUddsajph in 1889, while Dr. Hommel printed 
another Arabic version at the Vienna Oriental 
Congress.* Again, Dr. Steinschneider many 

* Hommel's version was translated by Mr. E. Rehatsek 
in the Journal of the Roy. Asiat. Soc, xxii, 119-55. A 


years ago discovered that one of the best 
known didactic poems in Mediaeval Jewish 
literature, The Prince and the Dervish, by 
Abraham ibn Chisdai, was undoubtedly a ver- 
sion of the Barlaam legend. Lastly, a Mr. Marr 
has discovered and (partly) published a Georgian 
version of the legend under the title Mudrosf 
Balavara, or, " The Wisdom of Balavar." 
Almost any of these versions might be, or 
represent, the original form of the legend, 
and the present stage of Barlaam criticism is 
concerned with their relative antiquity and 
independence. Among these high summits 
of Oriental scholarship it is customary to tie 
oneself to the latest German * in order to 
avoid falling into the many crevasses in the 
path. In accordance with this custom I attach 
myself to Dr. Kuhn. 

The most startling suggestion that has been 
made with regard to these recent discoveries 
of Oriental versions has been, that the Greek 
text was a translation from the Georgian. 
Baron von Rosen, in a review of M. Zoten- 

third Arabic text has been interpolated into a theological 
work by Muhamad ibn Babawaik (ob. 991 A.D.). See 
Horn m el ap. Weisslovits. 
* But what if the latest German himself tumbles ? 


berg's book, brought forward a couple of pieces 
of evidence which at first sight seemed con- 
clusive, coming as they do from such different 
sources, where there could be no question of 
collusion. Two of the MSS. of the Greek 
text (Nanianus 137, Paris, 1771) attributed 
the translation into Greek to a St. Euthymius. 
Kow in a Grusinian life of St. Euthymius 
it is stated of him that he had translated 
Balavari and Ahukura, and some other books 
from Georgian into Greek. Taking these two 
statements into connection with the fact that 
an ancient Georgian version of the Barlaam 
legend has been published by Marr, in which 
Barlaam goes by the name of Balavar, the 
conclusion seems almost forced upon us that 
this is the legend from which the Greek had 
been translated by Euthymius. 

But further research and reflection prove 
that this conclusion is precipitate, even though 
Baron von Bosen and Professor Hommel have 
adopted it. The two Greek codices come from 
Mount Athos, where the tradition about St. 
Euthymius may be merely a bit of chauvinistic 
bluster, and is, at any rate, 400 years later 
than the composition of the Greek text. 


Finally, the Georgian text dijffers widely from 
the Greek, and cannot therefore have been 
its original : while the unique MS. that con- 
tains it attributes it to " Sophron of Palestine, 
the son of Isaac." Things are not always 
what they seem when scholarly hypotheses 
are about. 

Dismissing thus the Grusinian version out of 
the purview, there remain the various Arabic 
versions, and the Hebrew one, to assist us in 
our search after the Urquelle. And first with 
regard to the Arabic versions : considerable 
light is thrown by various references made 
in the Kitdb al-Fihrist, a sort of Arabic 
Lowndes or Brunet. This contains references 
in various places to no less than four books that 
may possibly have influenced the Barlaam litera- 
ture, (a) A Buddha book, Kitdb al-Budd. 
(h) A Kitdb Yuddsdf wa-Balauhar. (c) A book 
of ''Yudasaf alone" and {d) a poem of Aban 
ibn Abdal-Hamid (ob. 822), with the same title 
as (6). Excluding the last, which is no longer 
in existence, and can only have been of 
secondary importance, it seems clear that 
there existed a double set of books in 
Arabic, one dealing directly with Buddha 


and his legend, the other placing Balauhar 
by his side. 

Leaving for a moment the book of Buddha, 
of which I fancy I have found traces, one has 
to settle the question of the relationship of 
the Georgian, Greek, and Arabic versions. 
From Appendix I., in which their variations 
are noted, it will be observed that the Georgian 
agrees with the Arabic version with regard to 
the original order of the parables : while, on 
the other hand, it agrees in omitting certain 
portions with the Greek, and in the conclusion 
of the story. Kuhn, accordingly, represents 
the relationship by the following genealogical 
tree : — 






I have small Arabic and less Georgian, and 
I must therefore tread warily on this aspect of 
the question. But there seems to be one con- 
clusive piece of evidence against the pedigree 
suggested by Dr. Kuhn. There can be no 



doubt what the unknown quantity Y is, as re- 
gards the Greek version. Syriac was the main 
conduit pipe through which the treasures of 
Greek literature debouched on to the Orient, 
and inversely, it was mainly through Syriac 
versions that Oriental treasures were added 
to Greco-Byzantine literature : and we have 
special reason for saying, as we shall soon see, 
that Syriac was the immediate source of the 
Greek version. But that the Georgian also 
derived from that language, as Dr. Kuhn 
suggests, the only external confirmation of the 
suggestion he can give, is its alleged author- 
ship by Sophron of Palestine. Against it, 
and as I think, obviously against it, is the 
title of the Georgian version, which connects 
it with an Arabic, and disconnects it from a 
Syrian source. 

Proper names are the feu follet of the etymo- 
logist, but the Pole Star of the literary histo- 
rian; the one has to guess at their inner 
meaning, the other can follow the changes in 
their outer form. There can be no doubt how 
and why the name Barlaam got into the Greek 
version, instead of the form Balauhar, found in 
the recently discovered Oriental ones. Barlaam 



was an Antioch worthy of the early fourth 
century, who is referred to by SS. Basil and 
Chrysostom in their homilies; a church was 
erected to his honour in Edessa, 411 a.d.* 
Outside Syria he was unknown, and his name 
must have been introduced in the Syriac ver- 
sion from its accidental similarity with the 
Balauhar of the Arabic version. Now, if the 
Georgian had been derived from the Syriac, it 
would surely have retained the form, Barlaam, 
instead of keeping, as it has, to the Arabic 
form, Balauhar. Considering, too, that the 
order of the parables are the same in the 
Georgian and Arabic versions, I think there 
can be little doubt that it was derived from the 
Arabic, and the variations at the end may have 
been due to later modifications of the Bombay 
Arabic text, intended to modify its Christian- 
ising tendencies. 

There is still another form in which the Buddha 
legend got into Syriac. Professor Hommel has 
already suggested that the earlier part of the 
legend of St. Alexis, in which that saint flees 
from wife and child in order to embrace the 

* Hommel gives these details in Weisslovits, 



hermit's life, is simply a Christian adaptation 
of the Great Renunciation of Siddartha the 
Buddha. The late M. Amiaud, who studied 
the Greek forms of the legend, La Legende 
Syriaque de S. Alexis, Paris, 1889, came to 
the conclusion that it was written c. 450-75, 
originally without any name being attached to 
it, and without the second part, dealing with 
an impossible journey to " Rome," probably 
Constantinople. Curiously enough, in this 
early version the anonymous " holy man " is 
represented to have died at Edessa, 412, the 
very date within a year when the Church was 
dedicated to St. Barlaam, As this early life is 
solely devoted to the Great Renunciation, and 
was originally anonymous, I venture to suggest 
that it was derived directly or indirectly from 
the original of the Buddha book (Kitdb al- 
Budd), mentioned in the Fihrist. Whether 
the relation of the Alexis legend to the Church 
of St. Barlaam was accidental or not, it is 
indeed curious that the name of this other- 
wise unknown saint has become connected 
with both the Syriac forms of the Buddha 

Reverting to these given above, we have still 


to determine the unknown quantity X in Kuhn's 
pedigree. Here we are helped by the other 
name in our title. Yudasaph is frequently re- 
ferred to elsewhere in Arabic literature as the 
founder of an Indian ascetic religion. The 
same name is found written Budasaph, with 
merely the change of a diacritical point. 
Reinaud was the first to suggest that the latter 
variant was simply a form of Bodhisattva, the 
technical term in Buddhistic literature for ths 
man who is destined to become a Buddha. 
But where and how did Bodhisattva become 
Bodasaph ? Obviously in Persia, where the 
ending a&'p is a favourite one for proper 

Another name confirms this result in a most 
instructive way. When the young prince, in 
the story, goes out for the first time into the 
world and sees some of its misery, he is accom- 
panied by his teacher, whose name is Zardan 
in the Greek, Zandani in the Georgian version. 
There is little doubt that these forms are ulti- 
mately to be derived from Chandaka, the 
Buddha's charioteer. The variation of the 
Greek and Georgian forms can only be ex- 


plained by their derivation from a script in 

which n and r are indistinguishable. This 

occurs in the Pehlevi alphabet, and not in the 

Syriac : so I am again confirmed in my dissent 

from Dr. Kuhn's* view, that the Georgian 

was derived from the Syriac version. The 

.Georgian form, Zandani, is at least a step 

\ closer to India. Incidentally the name tells 

us from what part of India the legend was 

derived. Among the Buddhists of Southern 

I India the Master's charioteer is known as 

• Channa, among those of the North he has the 

i fuller name, Chandaka. By the presence of 

the d in the Georgian and Greek forms we 

1 learn that their source is to be found, as 

I was to be expected, among the Northern 


We still have to determine the relations of the 

* The sentence in which Dr. Kuhn states the above 
facts, with the requisite references, fills seventeen lines of 
his Memoir, pp. 34-5, and includes no less than 230 words. 
It is in other respects a model German scientific sentence, 
and I would have quoted it as a warning example, but that 
I owe so much to Dr. Kuhn, and feel that its clumsiness is 
not personal to him, but merely characteristic of the want 
of consideration for their readers shown by German scien- 
tific writers. 


three various Arabic texts which are still extant, 
with that of the Hebrew version of Abraham 
ibn Chisdai (ob. 1240). The difficulty here is 
put at once by the opening words of ibn 
Chisdai's version : " Thus saith the translator 
from the Greek into Arabic." Besides the 
rarity of such direct translations, without the 
intermediation of Syriac, there is the further 
difficulty that the Hebrew version does not 
entirely agree, either in order or in contents, 
with any of the Arabic texts at present ac- 
cessible. It comes nearer to the Halle MS., 
but that on the face of it is only an extract. 
Professor Hommel, and his pupil, Dr. Weiss- 
lovits, claim for the Hebrew version a closer 
relationship with the Pehlevi original than is 
the case with the Greek : and though Dr. 
Kuhn seems opposed to the claim, it would 
seem to be confirmed by the agreement of the 
Hebrew with the order of the parables in the 
Arabic texts, which again agrees with that 
of the Georgian to which we have assigned a 
closer relationship to the Pehlevi version. 

The following table of Professor Hommel 
will indicate this : — 






(Halle and 



Death Trumpet . 


c. viii. 



The Four Caskets . 


c. viii. 



The Sower . . . 


C. X. 



Man in Well . . 




The Three Friends 


c. xi. 



King of the Year . 


c. xiii. 



King and Vizier . 


c. xvi. 



Rich Man and Beg- 



gar's Daughter . 

c. xviii. 



Man and Nightin- 



c. xxi. 



The Tame Gazelle . 



The Amorous Wife 


The Demon Women 



The order of the parables is here the same 
in the Hebrew, Arabic, and Georgian, while 
that of the Greek varies considerably. The 
absence of the last three parables in Hebrew 
and Arabic is simply due to the fact that they 
do not contain anything subsequent to the part- 
ing with Barlaam. But the variation of order 
in the Greek text against the unanimity of the 
other three versions seems to me conclusive 
against the mediate derivation of the Hebrew 
or Arabic from the Greek, which may there- 

* Wanting in the Halle MS. 

t This occurs only in the Georgian version, but has 
analogies with similar tales in the Katha Sarit Sagara, in 
which the lustful disposition of woman is insisted upon. 


fore for the present be set aside in our journey 
to the fons et origo of the whole literature. 

Thus far we are led to the conclusion that 
this original was in Pehlevi, and on this point 
there is, practically, unanimity among recent 
investigators. But the book, on the face of 
it, is propagandist, and the question arises, 
what religion was it whose interests it was 
composed to further? Dr. Kuhn declares for 
a Christian author, but on very slight grounds, 
as it seems to me. True, there is a certain 
amount of evidence for the existence of a Chris- 
tian Pehlevi literature.* True, the Nestorian 
Church was firmly established in East Iran. 
The possibility, therefore, of the Christian 
manipulation of the Buddha legend in that 
district cannot be denied. But the Barlaam 
book in its Pehlevi form had very little theo- 
logical tendency. The theologisms of the Greek 
text are excrescences, and are peculiar to that 
version. The only trace of Christian influence 
to which Dr. Kuhn can point, is the parable 
of Tlie Sower, to which, curiously enough, there 
are strong Buddhistic parallels (Carus, Gospel 

* Professor Sachau in Journal Roy. Asiat. Soc. N.S., 
iv. 230, seq. 


of Buddha. I cannot think that any work, 
written with the express view of the propaga- 
tion of the faith, would be so singularly free 
from all dogmatic colouring. 

The existence of the Hebrew version confirms 
me in my belief that the original work was not 
intended, or regarded, as specifically religious, or, 
at any rate, theological. Its teaching is ascetic, 
it is true, but all religions have a touch of 
asceticism. It was for the sake of its parables, 
not for its theology, that the book was taken 
up, equally by Moslem, Jewish, and Christian 
writers. Now the Hebrew version is much 
fuller in its parables, containing no less than 
ten * not found in the other versions. Of 
these, four at least can be traced back to India 
{Bird and Angel, The Power of Love, Language 
of Animals, and Robbers^ Nemesis). I see no 
reason, therefore, why we should not go behind 
the Pehlevi and look for the original in its com- 
plete form, as we can certainly trace it in its 
elements, to India itself. 

* Bird and Angel, c. ix. ; Cannibal King, c. xii. ; The 
Good Physician, c. xiv. ; King and Pious Shepherd ; Oasis 
and Garden, c. xvi. ; The Hungry Bitch, c. xvii. ; The 
Power of Love, c. xviii. ; JEel and Dog, c. xxiii. ; The 
Language of Animals, c. xxiv. ; 27ie Bobbers' Nemesis. 


In short, I regard the literary history of the 
Barlaam literature as completely parallel with 
that o/ the Fables of Bidpai. Originally Bud- 
dhi§>^c books, both lost their specifically Bud- 
4feistic traits before they left India, and made 
/'their appeal, by their parables, more than by 
their doctrines. Both were translated into 
Pehlevi in the reign of Chosroes, and from that j 
watershed floated off into the literatures of all 
the great creeds. In Christianity alone, char- 
acteristically enough, one of them, the Barlaam 
book, was surcharged with dogma and turned 
to polemical uses, with the curious result that 
Buddha became one of the champions of the 
Church. To divest the Barlaam-Buddha of this 
character, and see him in his original form, we 
must take a further journey and seek him in 
his home beyond the Himalayas. 


Baelaam in India. 

The Portuguese historian, Diogo do Conto, in 
describing the exploits of his nation in Asia, 
in 1612, had occasion to speak of Buddha, or 
the Budao, as he called him. After recount- 
ing his legend, he goes on to say : " With re- 
ference to this story, we have been delayed 
in inquiring if the ancient Gentiles of those 
parts had in their writings any knowledge of 
Josaphat, who was converted by Barlaam, who 
in his legend is represented as the son of 
a great king in India, who had just the same 
up-bringing, with all the same particulars 
that we have recounted of the life of the 
Budao . . . and as it informs us that he was 
the son of a great king in India, it may well 
be, as we have said, that he was the Budao of 
whom they relate such marvels " * {Decada 

* The late Sir Henry Yule drew attention to this re- 
markable anticipation of modern research in the Academy 


quinta da Asia, 1. vi. c. ii., Lisboa, 1612, 
f. 123). 

Thus, almost as soon as the Western world 
got ta know anything of the Buddha, the re- 
markable resemblance of his legend and that 
of St. Josaphat was observed, but no note was 
taken of do Conto's hint for two centuries and 
a half, when M. Laboulaye, quite indepen- 
dently, drew attention to the Buddhistic origin 
of the Barlaam legend in the Journal des 
Dehats of the 26th July 1859.''^ Laboulaye's 
discovery was clinched by Felix Liebrecht in a 
paper on the sources of Barlaam and Josaphat 
(Jahrbuch, f. Rom. Lit. i860, 314-34).! Since 
the appearance of that striking memoir, no 
doubt has ever existed in any one's mind, who 
has examined the question of the legend of St. 
Joasaph, that it was simply and solely derived 
from the legend of Buddha. Indeed, if we 
put the two legends side by side, as M. Cosquin 
has done (Conies de Lorraine, pp. xlix. seq.), 
their close resemblance, if not identity, is 

of ist Sept. 1883. He repeats the information in his Marco 
Polo, ii. 308. 

* Dr. Steinschneider had suspected the Indian origin 
nine years before in ZDMG, v, 91. 

t Reprinted in his Zur Volkskunde, 1879, pp. 441-60. 



" proved by inspection," 


Abenner, King of India, 
persecutes the Christians. 
He has a beautiful son, 
named Joasaph. An Astro- 
loger reveals tothe King that 
he will become a Christian. 

The King builds a magni- 
ficent palace in a remote 
district, in which he places 
his son, and surrounds him 
by those who are ordered 
never to speak of the mis- 
eries of this life, of sickness, 
poverty, old age, or death. 

"When Joasaph is grown 
up he asks permission to go 
outside the palace. On his 
way he sees a leper and a 
blind man. He asks what 
is the cause of their appear- 
ance. He is told that it is 
due to ill nesses caused by the 
corruption of the humours, 
and learns that every man 
is liable to similar evils. He 
becomes sad and distressed. 

Shortly afterwards, Joa- 

as the mathematicians 


Suddhodana, King of 
Kapilavastu, in India, has a 
beautiful son, who is called 
Siddharta. The Brahmins 
predict that he will become 
a Hermit. 

The King builds three 
palaces for his son — one for 
the Spring, one for the 
Summer, and one for the 
Winter. Each palace is sur- 
rounded by five hundred 
Guards. The Prince desires 
one day to visit their garden. 
The King orders everything 
to be removed that could 
indicate the existence of 

Going out of the South 
Gate of his palace the Prince 
sees on the footpath a sick 
man burning with fever, 
breathing heavily, and ema- 
ciated. Learning from his 
charioteer the cause of this, 
the Prince exclaims, " How 
can man think of joy and 
pleasure when such things 
exist ! " and turning back 
his chariot he re-enters the 

Another day, going out 




saph on another excursion 
comes across an old man, 
bent double, with tottering 
steps, white hair, wrinkled 
visage, and toothless gums. 
He asks his attendants what 
this means. They tell him 
it is due to old age. " And 
what will be the end of it 
all ? " he asks. " No other 
than death," they reply. 
' ' And is that the end of all 
men ? " asks the Prince, and 
learns that sooner or later 
death comes to all men. 
From that day the Prince is 
plunged in thinking to him- 
self, " One day death will 
carry me off too ; shall I be 
swallowed up into nothing ? 
Or is there another life, or 
another world ? " 

The Hermit Barlaam ap- 


of the East Gate, he comes 
across an old man, decrepit, 
wrinkled, bent, and totter- 
ing, with white hairs. "Who 
is this man ? " he asks. ' ' And 
why does he look so strange ? 
Is he of some peculiar 
species of men ? Or do all 
men become like that?" 
His charioteer replies, 
"This man's appearance is 
due to his age, and all men 
become like him when they 
are old. " The Prince orders 
his charioteer to turn back, 
saying, ** If such an old age 
awaits me, what have 1 to 
do with pleasure and joy ? " 

Going out another time 
by the West Gate, he sees 
a dead man on a bier, his 
relatives mourning round 
him. He learns what death 
is, and cries out, " Wretched 
youth, that old ago can de- 
stroy ! Wretched health, 
that so many maladies can 
destroy ! Wretched life 
where man remains for so 
short a time ! " 

The fourth time the Prince 




pears under disguise to 
Joasaph, tells him of Chris- 
tianity, and converts him. 
After the departure of Bar- 
laam, Joasaph tries to lead 
the life of a Hermit in his 

The King tries every 
means to turn Joasaph from 
the true faith, but in vain. 


goes out by the North Gate, 
when he sees a Bhikshu, 
calm and reserved, with cast- 
down eyes, carrying an alms- 
dish. He asks what sort of 
man this is, and is told that 
he is an Ascetic, who has 
renounced all passion and 
ambition, and lives on 
charity. "It is well," says 
Siddharta; "I have found 
the clue to the miseries of 
life." And once more he 
returns to the palace. 

The Prince informs his 
father of his intention to 
become an Ascetic. The 
King tries to dissuade him, 
but in vain. 

After this exercise on the parallel bars there 
can be no doubt of the identity of Josaphat 
and Buddha. As we have already seen, their 
very names are the same, for Josaphat is only 
the Roman spelling for Yosaphat, this again 
being a confusion between the Biblical Jehos- 
hapliat and the Greek form Joasaph. This is 
directly derived from the Arabic; it is a con- 
tracted form of Yodasaph,* which is a mis- 

* Kuhn explains it is as a misspelling, IflAA2A<i> for 


reading for Bodasaph, since y and h in Arabic 
are only distinguished by a diacritical point. 
As we have already seen, Bodasaph is directly 
derived, through the Pehlevi, from Bodhisattva, 
the technical title of the man who is destined 
to attain Buddhahood, a description that ex- 
actly applies to the career of Josaphat. The 
very name, therefore, of the hero implies a con- 
scious Buddhistic tendency in the original form 
of the legend, and tells against Dr. Kuhn's 
contention for a Pehlevi Christian original. 

It is also probable that the first name in our 
title can also be traced back to India, but on 
the exact form, which was the original, learned 
opinion is not at present united : and a mere 
reporter, like myself, can only put the con- 
flicting claims before the reader and allow him 
to take his choice. We have seen that Barlaam 
is merely a Syriac substitute for Balauvar. 
Dr. Kuhn points out, that in the Zend alphabet 
g and I are almost identical, while we have 
already seen that n and r might easily mistake 
themselves for one another. Consequently, this 
pundit suggests "^ Bhagavan is the real original 

* When I was at Cambridge, the boat of the Non- 
Collegiate students was generally known as the Non Coll. 


of halauliar. Unfortunately, lie leaves us in 
the dark as to what Bliagavan means or im- 
plies. It is, of course, one of the titles given 
to the Buddha. Baron von Rosen, on the 
other hand, identifies Balauhar with an Arabic 
word, halahvar, used by the Arabic lexico- 
graphers to designate an Indian king. The 
reader will not be surprised to learn that the 
Arabic word is a simple adaptation of the 
Sanskrit hhattaraka. Both suggestions seem 
to me almost equally far-fetched. But the 
human -mind is incapable of remaining in a 
state of suspension a la Buridan. De Morgan 
said that he found most people had a decided 
view on the question whether platythliptic co- 
efficients were positive or negative.* Similarly, 
if one has to make a choice. Dr. Kuhn's 

Boat. One day it suddenly made its appearance as the 
Heron. The whole University was puzzled at the change, 
till a budding philologist remarked casually, "Of course, 
they are the same, *Non Coll.' becomes by transposition 
'Coll-on,' and this by metathesis of I and r becomes 
' coron. ' A spiration of the initial consonant changes it to 
'choron,' which, again, by weakening of the aspirate and 
vemerising the vowel, becomes * Heron.' Thus 'Non-CoU * 
= ' Heron.' Q.E.D." 

* We are getting more modest nowadays. I have fired 
off this query at most of my friends, who persist in spoiling 
De Morgan's point by asking, "What are platythliptic 
coeflBcients ? " 


suggestion seems to have more for it than 
Baron von Rosen's. For there is little doubt 
that, as a matter of fact, Barlaam is himself 
a variant of the Buddha, and thus a doublet 
of Josaphat. For Barlaam's speeches give very 
often the Buddhistic doctrine in the Buddha's 
own words: so that, in the last resort, our 
fable tells of the conversion of the man destined 
to be Buddha by a man who has already at- 
tained Buddhahood, and the title, "Barlaam 
and Josaphat," would adequately indicate the 
subject to Indian ears in the form Bhagavan 
Bodhisattvasclia* We get the same doubling 
in the Buddha legend when the Buddha 
converts to his doctrines a rich merchant's son 
named Yasoda,t who has himself performed 
the Great Renunciation, and whose history is 
therefore obviously a variant of the Buddha's. 

We have seen that other names still retain 
traces of their Indian origin. Josaphat's tutor, 

* I have to thank my young friend, Master Leonard 
Magnus, for my knowledge how to conjoin two Sanskrit 
words. If there is anything incorrect, I must have mis- 
understood his instructions. I would add that Marco 
Polo's title for the Buddha "Sagamoni Borcar "== Sakya- 
muni Bhagavan. 

t Vessel ovsky would identify the name Joasaph with 
this Yasoda. 



Zardan, was, we saw, Buddha's charioteer, 
Chandaka. Kuhn gives several other examples, 
chiefly, however, derived from the Arabic 
version : for the Greek has, in most instances, 
substituted Biblical, or quasi-Biblical, names 
for the original. Thus, Josaphat's father, in 
the Arabic, Janaisar, becomes in the Greek, 
Abenner (2 Sam. iii. 6). The Bakis of the 
Arabic appears in double form in the Greek, 
as Araches and Nachor, the latter being derived 
from Genesis xi. Similarly, the magician 
Theudas is derived from Acts v. 37, and has 
only an accidental resemblance to Devadatta, 
the Judas of the Buddha legend. But, be- 
sides these merely formal proofs of Indian 
origin derived from the names, there is much 
internal evidence for the influence of Indian 
thought. Even the Greek text preserves 
traces of Buddhistic phraseology, as Dr. Berry 
has shown. Thus, in the earlier part of the 
book, where one of the king's nobles takes to 
the hermit's life, it is said of him " that with 
noble purpose he purified his senses by fasting 
and watching, and by the diligent study of 
sacred articles. And having delivered his soul 
from every kind of emotion he shone with the 


light of dispassionate calm." Again, at the 
end of the book, when Abenner becomes con- 
verted, a great multitude of his people are 
baptized, "both rulers and civil oJOSicers, sol- 
diers and people," a distinct reference to the 
four castes of India. 

But it is especially in the recently printed 
Bombay text of the Arabic version that we 
find the clearest and most conclusive proof of 
the complete identification of Josaphat and 
Barlaam in the original. Here we find, not alone 
the Great Renunciation, in which Josaphat, 
like Buddha, leaves power, wealth, love, and 
family ties behind him at the dead of night, 
but even the meditation under the Bo-Tree.* 
In this version, indeed, the Buddha and his 
doctrines are especially referred to by name, 
as "al-Budd," and the dying Budasaph, like 
the dying Buddha, breathes his last in the arms 
of his favourite disciple Anand. Dr. Kuhn 
suggests that these details and references are 
due to interpolations by the Arabic translators 
from some of the lost Arabic books relating to 
Buddha, mentioned in the Fihrist. But this 
is all conjecture, and is mainly urged by Dr. 

* See Abstract of Legend in A pp. I. xiii. 


Kuhn to support his contention that the original 
of Barlaam literature was a Pehlevi Christian 
adaptation of Christian legends. For my part, 
I cannot see any evidence for any distinctive 
dogmatic colouring in the original. As is 
shown by a comparison with the Georgian, the 
distinctively Christian passages of the Greek 
version are interpolations peculiar to it (see 
App. I. vi., viii., ix., xiii.), or at least to its im- 
mediate Syriac source. Removing these inter- 
polations, the original is seen to be entirely and 
characteristically Buddhistic in form and con- 
tents, and we cannot imagine such a work 
originating elsewhere than in India. 

On the other hand, it seems likely that none 
of the Arabic versions represent completely 
the original Indian source of them all. They 
omit the veneration of Josaphat's relics, which 
is a distinct Buddhistic touch, as Liebrecht saw 
{Zur Volkshunde, 454-5).* The detrition to 
which the proper names have been subjected 
in the Arabic text show a long course of trans- 
mission, and we cannot, therefore, depend 

* Kuhn is therefore mistaken (p. 32) in thinking this an 
independent interpolation of the common source of the 
Georgian and Greek version. 



implicitly upon it for even an approximate re- 
storation of the Indian original. Yet sufficient 
remains of this for us to be enabled to come to 
a tolerably definite conclusion as to the early 
history of the Barlaam legend before it took its 
Greek form. That history may be shortly 
summarised as follows. 

During the declining years of Buddhism in 
India, in the early centuries of our era, at- 
tempts were made by the Brahmins to adopt 
that side of the Buddhistic methods which had 
proved most attractive, namely, the method of 
teaching by parables. A number of the most 
striking of these were adopted by the Brahmins 
and placed in a beast- tale framework, and 
formed the Indian original of the Fables of 
Bidpai. In opposition to this, the Buddhists 
retold the legend of the Buddha in a form least 
adapted to arouse Brahmanistic opposition, but 
equally enriched with the most striking of 
Buddhistic parables. It recounted the attain- 
ing the Buddhahood by a Bodhisattva, or one 
destined to be a Buddha, owing to the teachings 
of a Bhagavan, or one who has already attained 
the Supreme State. This latter book received 
some such title as Bhagavan Bodhisattvascha, 


and was the original of our Barlaam. Both 
of these Buddhistic books were translated into 
Pehlevi in the reign of Chosroes (531-79 a.d.), 
and both proved attractive to all the various 
sects — Buddhistic, Moslem, Nestorian — that 
found a common point of contact in East Iran. 
Both were almost immediately translated into 
Arabic and Syriac, and passed from the latter 
into almost all the languages of Europe. But 
the beast-tales of Bidpai were incapable of 
any dogmatic colouring, and were left un- 
changed in the European versions. The story 
of the conversion of the Bodhisattva by the 
Bhagavan was, on the other hand, admirably 
adapted for propagandist interpolation and 
modification, and was therefore transformed by 
the Greek translator into the legend of St. 
Barlaam and St. Josaphat, as it afterwards 
spread through Europe. It was thus the 
difference of the framework which led to a 
difference in fate between the Bidpai and the 
Barlaam legends. But in both cases the at- 
tractiveness of the books consisted, not so much 
in the framework, as in that which it enframed, 
to which we now turn. 


Parables op Barlaam 

For some reason or other, which has never 
yet been fully investigated, there is nothing 
so irritating to humanity, nothing so boring, 
as the inculcation to morality. "Whether it 
is that we feel instinctively that we know 
what is right even if we do not do it, and 
therefore need not be told it, or whether we 
resent being told by another, who thereby 
lays claim to greater moral insight than our- 
selves, the result is certain, nothing makes 
people feel so wicked as moral exhortations. 
Nowadays the moralists know this; formerly 
they only suspected it. So in former days 
they invented the Parable so as to administer 
the moral pill in the story jam. 

Greece and India, I have shown elsewhere, 
each inventid separately the Fable as a means 


of moral or political instruction.* Similarly 
Judea and India, eacii probably independently, 
invented the Parable for the same purpose. 
Both the Rabbis and the Brahmins found 
that the best way to point a moral was to 
adorn a tale . Both Jesus and Buddha adopted 
the method of their rivals for the purpose of 
their propaganda.! Especially was t-his the 
case with Buddha and his followers. A very 
large part of the Buddhist Scriptures is 
taken up by parables, and it is to this source 
that we can ultimately trace the parables 
of Barlaam, which, equally with those of 
Bidpai, may be described as the Parables of 

^nd, first, what is a Parable % It is a tale 
with a double jaeaning, like the Fable or the 
Allegory. It is distinguished from the Fable 
as being told of men, not beasts; from the 
AHegbryi 15y its shortness and greater direct- 
ness. The Sunday School definition, "An 
earthly story with a heavenly meaning," is too 

* See Caxton, iEsop, i. p. 209. 

t It is characteristic that in his special treatise on the 
Parables Archbishop Trench treated those of the Rabbis 
most perfunctorily, though there can be no doubt Jesus 
learnt the method from them. 


restricted, since many parables know nothing 
of heaven or hell. TChe Parable is often 
merely an Example of a moral truth which 
it is intenHed to convey, but it should more 
strictly be defined as a ISTarrative-MelEaphor. 
Aswith the MetaphorTthe Parable often leads 
to' false reasoning when the analogy is pushed 
too far. 

Whatever their origin, use, or effectiveness, 
there is no doubt of their popularity among 
all creeds in the Middle Ages. Brahmins, 
Rabbis, Monks, and Moolahs all enliven their 
religious discussions with a seasoning of par- 
ables. The illicit joys of tale and gossip were 
used to evade the longueurs of the sermon. 
In Christendom the fashion chimed in with 
the vogue for the allegorical interpretation of 
Scripture, by which its insufficiency was eked 
out or its inconsistencies overcome. And the 
fashion spread from the moral sermon to the 
moral treatise till there was scarcely a mediae- 
val book of devotion which did not relieve its 
preternatural dulness by some form or other 
of the parable. Perhaps the most favourite 
source for these divertissements was the Legend 
of Barlaam and Josaphat, which, in a way, 


forms the centre of the whole literature. Its 
parables, therefore, form a type of a whole 
literary movement in Europe and Asia, and 
to them we may now turn. 

Taking all the earliest versions of the Bar- 
laam Legend, the Arabic, Georgian, Hebrew, 
and Greek, there appear to be some three 
dozen parables contained in them. But, as 
is the case with more important gospels, those 
of Barlaam are not entirely synoptic. Some 
of the parables appear in all forms, and of 
these we may be sure all could be traced back 
to India. Others again appear but in two 
or three of these versions, while a consider- 
able number only make their appearance in 
one version, e.g., the Hebrew or the Bombay 
Arabic. I have told them all in Appendix 
II., and given the details of their occurrences in 
the earliest versions of Barlaam, as well as the 
history of their spread outside the specifically 
Barlaam literature. Here I propose treating 
of them more generally in the first place, and 
then descanting at greater length on a few of 
the parables which happen to be of exceptional 
interest from their widespread or their impor- 
tant derivates. 


Of the thirty-one parables contained in Ap- 
pendix II., nine occur in all the earlier versions, 
six occur in two or more of them, while sixteen 
have found their way to only one version. Of 
the first class, six can be traced to India ; of the 
second, two; and of the third, seven. It does 
not, therefore, appear that any very certain proof 
of existence in the original Barlaam is shown 
by the absence or presence of traceable Indian 
parallels. Indeed, no mechanical and external 
test can enable us to judge whether any special 
parable came with Barlaam from India. Even 
where, as in some of the parables, especially 
to the Hebrew version, an Indian original has 
been found, it by no means follows that the 
parable in question, though ultimately derived 
from India, necessarily came into the Hebrew 
version from some form of the Barlaam Legend. 
Thus it would be premature to assume, e.g., that 
the story known as Tlie Language of Animals 
first began its travels through the ages and the 
climes in connection with the Legend of Bar- 
laam-Buddha. The spread of these parables, 
extensive as it is, throws but little light on 
the diffusion of folktales properly so called. 
In almost every case the spread has been by 


means of literary, not oral, tradition. Those 
that occur in the Greek version were trans- 
lated into Latin, and were then utilised as 
Exempla, or seasoning for sermons. And it 
was from this source, if at all, that they be- 
came current among the folk. In the dis- 
cussion about the diffusion of popular literature 
the question of Indian origin has to be treated 
separately, according to the character of the 
tales involved. These may be divided into 
four classes : fables, parables, stories of the 
wiles of women, and folktales. As far as the 
evidence goes at present, it would seem that 
the first two classes were transmitted by 
literary colportage, while the second two 
have passed from East to West, from mouth 
to mouth.* 

Of the wide spread which many of these 
parables of Barlaam reached, ample evidence is 
given in Appendix II. Though the references 
there are put in the shortest and, I fear, most 

* Hence it is that M. B^dier, in his ingenious work on 
the Fabliaxcx, which seem to be mainly derived from the 
third class, is entirely beating the air in attempting to 
disprove their derivation from Indian books. M. Gaston 
Paris had put M. Bedier's whole argument out of court 
when he stated of the Fabliaux, "lis proviennent de la 
transmission orale et non des livres " {Lit. franf., § 73). 




unintelligible form, and in the smallest of 
legible type, in several cases they take up a 
whole page, without any claim to be exhaus- 
tive. It would, obviously, be impossible to dis- 
cuss here all, or even a majority, of these 
parables, ample information about which can 
be obtained in the critical treatment of them, 
for which I give references in Appendix II. 
under the section of " Literature." But it 
seems desirable to treat at greater length a 
few of the more important parables, whether 
their importance depends upon their illustrious 
derivates or their folklore interest. Of these 
there can be no doubt which comes first in 
every way in deserving special notice. 

I. The Four Caskets. — To find an integral 
part of the plot of one of Shakspere's best- 
known plays to be derived from Indian parable 
is one of those curiosities of literature which 
cannot fail to strike even the most vacant 
mind. But that the Caskets Story of the 
Merchant of Venice can ultimately be derived 
from a Buddhistic legend there is no man- 
ner of doubt, even if the immediate source 
whence Shakspere drew it cannot at present 
be ascertained. We can at least trace the 


stoiy from India to England through the 
medium of the Barlaam literature, and there 
can be no doubt that it came to Shakspere 
through some derivate of the Gesta Romano- 
rum^ the English end link in the chain of 
tradition. But even apart from this evidence, 
the internal proofs of relationship would be 

A reference to the form of the Parable as it 
appears in the Barlaam Literature (see Appen- 
dix II., infra f p. cvii.) will convince the reader 
that he has there the original Shaksperian 
motif. It is there found combined with the 
Parable of The Trum;pet of Death in such a 
way as to make up one complex story. Now 
there can be no doubt about the Buddhistic 
origin of the Parable of The Trumpet of 
Death. It is found separately told of Yitya- 
soka, brother of the great Buddhistic King, 
Asoka. The great King's brother, who had 
not yet been converted to Buddhism, had ex- 
pressed his wonder that the followers of that 
religion could overcome their passions without 
resorting to asceticism. The King, to try his 
brother, and to convert him to the New Re- 
li»ion — so runs the tale — ordered his courtiers to 


induce his brother and heir to try on the Royal 
Robes and sit upon the throne while he him- 
self was at the Bath. The King, however, 
managed to catch his brother in his compro- 
mising attitude on the throne, and ordered 
him as a punishment to be treated as a King 
for a week, except that behind the throne was 
placed all the time the Royal Executioner 
with his Warning Bell. After the week was 
over the King asked his brother how he had 
managed so well to overcome his passions 
without resorting to asceticism. Vityasoka 
replied that he could think of nothing but the 
impending death with which the Executioner 
kept threatening him. " If you could be 
so influenced by the thought of one death," 
said the King, " how much more we Bud- 
dhists, who have to think of an innumerable 
series of deaths through all the phases of our 
existence." The brother was convinced, and 
joined the new Creed. (Bournouf, Introduc- 
tion h VHistoire de Buddhisme: TscriSf 1876, 

P- 370-) 

That this is the original of the Barlaam 
Parable no one will deny ; whether it is itself 
derived from an earlier Indian original of the 


Story of Damocles, is another and more difl5cult 

Curiously enough, however, no Indian original 
has yet been discovered for the Stonj of the Four 
Caskets, which, in the Barlaam, is so closely 
connected with the Trumpet of Death. Dr. 
Braunholtz, who has made a most complete 
study of this parable,* has failed to find any- 
thing nearer than Buddhistic comparisons of 
man's body to a casket. There is, it is true, a 
choice of four vessels occurring in the legend of 
the Buddha.! When the Buddha had finished 
his week's meditation under the Bo-Tree, two 
merchants, who became his first two converts, 
approached him and offered him rice and honey 
in a golden vessel. He refused the refreshment 
on the ground of the costly nature of the vessel 
containing it, and continued to do so even after 
they had changed the vessel for a silver, and 
then for a copper one. Only when it was 
placed in the Clay Bowl, so famous in Bud- 
dhistic Legend, did he accept it. | This case of 

* For title, see Append. II,, sub voce, " Literature." 
t Omitted from Carus, 1, c. § xiii. 

J Attempts have been made to trace the Holy Grail 
to this Almsdish ; see Mr. Nutt's careful examination of the 


choice is, however, only one of modesty, and 
has nothing to do with judgment by appear- 
ances, which is of the essence of the Caskets 
Story of Barlaam and Shakspere. 

Dr. Braunholtz suggests that the idea of 
the choice may be derived from a widespread 
folktale, found throughout the Indo-European 
world, in which two girls go successively into 
Fairyland, and have there offered them a choice 
of caskets. The good girl chooses the least 
costly, and finds, on arriving home, that it is 
full of jewels. The other girl greedily selects 
the most expensive, and finds herself disap- 
pointed. This story has, indeed, the choice of 
caskets, but its moral is rather " Be modest " 
than " Do not judge by appearances," and thus 
resembles rather the choice of the Clay Bowl 
in the Legend of the Buddha than the selec- 
tion of the Leaden Casket by Bassanio. It is, 
however, found in countries where Buddhism 
has had sway, as in Burmah and Japan, and is 
thus, possibly, of Buddhistic origin. But it can 
be only used on the present occasion to show that 

suggestion in Arch. Rev., iii 257-71, and my letter, ihid., 
iv. 79, from which it would appear that the actual Dish 
still exists at Candahar. 




a choice of caskets was a familiar motif in Bud- 
dhistic Legend, and thus make more probable 
the Buddhistic origin of the Casket Story. 

But even without this confirmatory evidence 
the Buddhistic origin of the story can scarcely 
be doubted upon the evidence before us. It 
occurs in the Arabic and Georgian versions, 
as well as in the Greek, and was, therefore, 
in the Pehlevi and its Indian original. It is 
enframed in what is after all only a Life of 
Buddha, and is closely connected with the 
Trumpet of Death, the Buddhistic original 
of which has already been shown. One can 
have little hesitation in adding it to the store 
of Buddhistic parables, even though, up to the 
present, modern research has failed to discover 
it in Buddhistic literature. Of the former 
spread of the legend in the form in which 
it appears in the Barlaam Dr. Braunholtz 
gives full evidence. He has managed to put 
his elaborate researches in a pedigree, which I 
repeat in a modified form for the benefit of my 
readers. He combines with his inquiry a some- 
what similar Folktale of The Treasure in the 
Tree, which develops into a story of two blind 
men, to one of whom a loaf of bread is given 


by the Emperor, in which some gold is hidden. 
This has only the faintest similarity with the 
Caskets Story, and I have, therefore, removed 
it and its derivates from the pedigree, which 
is thus entirely confined to the story we know 
so well from Shakspere. 

2. The Sower.— The " Parable of the Sower," 
mostly as it is found in the Synoptic Gospels, 
occurs also in all the earliest versions of 
the Barlaam, Arabic, Georgian, Hebrew, and 
Greek. At first sight this fact does not seem 
to need much comment, but in reality it forms, 
perhaps, the chief puzzle in the critical pro- 
blem of Barlaam; for it constitutes almost 
the only piece of definitely Christian origin 
in the Ur-Barlaam, as far as we can trace it. 
It is, therefore, the only piece of evidence for Dr. 
Kuhn's contention that Barlaam was originally 
written in Pehlevi by a Nestorian Christian for 
the polemical purposes of his faith. One might 
argue, in reply, that one parable does not make 
a theology, and that a Christian allegory might 
be used by a Buddhist somewhat in the way 
that Stanley or Jowett might use a rousing 
sentence of Mahomet or Buddha to point their 
Broad Church morals. 


But there is a further point of interest and 
of difficulty about this parable in the present 
connection. Can we be quite sure that it is 
exclusively Christian ? For there is also a Bud- 
dhistic " Parable of the Sower," which is given, 
as follows, in Dr. Cams' admirable Gospel of 
Buddha (§ Ixxiv.) : — 

" Bharadvaja, a wealthy Brahman, was cele- 
brating his harvest thanksgiving when the 
Blessed One came with his alms-bowl, begging 
for food. 

"Some of the people paid him reverence, 
but the Brahman was angry, and said, '0 
Shramana, it would suit you better to go to 
work than to go begging. I plough and sow, 
and having ploughed and sown, I eat. If you 
did likewise, you too would have to eat.' 

"And the Tathagata answered him and 
said, 'O Brahman, I too plough and sow, and 
having ploughed and sown, I eat.' 

" * Do you profess to be a husbandman ? ' 
replied the Brahman. ' Where, then, are 
your bullocks? Where is the seed and the 
plough r 

" The Blessed One said, * Faith is the seed I 
sow ; good works are the rain that fertilises it ; 


wisdom and modesty are the plough ; my mind 
is the guiding rein ; I lay hold of the handle 
of the law ; earnestness is the goad I use ; and 
exertion is my draught-ox. This ploughing is 
ploughed to destroy the weeds of illusion. The 
harvest it yields is the immortal life of Nir- 
vana, and thus all sorrow ends.' 

"Then the Brahman poured rice-milk into 
a golden bowl and offered it to the Blessed 
One, saying, 'Let the teacher of mankind 
partake of the rice-milk, for the venerable 
Gautama ploughs a ploughing that bears the 
fruit of immortality.' " 

Now at first sight this certainly seems a 
remarkable parallel to the Gospel, parable, 
while its occasion is so natural that, if there 
is any question of derivation, the presumption 
is on the side of Buddha. But, examined 
more closely, the resemblance loses much of 
its force. For, while in the Buddhistic form 
stress is laid upon the sowing itself, in the 
Christian it is upon the nature of the soil 
to which attention is drawn. The moral of 
Buddha is — "Teaching is work;" the moral 
of Christ is-^"The effect of teaching depends 
upon the character of the taught." Altogether, 


therefore, notwithstanding the striking re- 
semblance, there is no need to discuss the 
possibilities of direct derivation. 

But the resemblance is close enough to 
suggest that the Christian form of the parable 
was introduced instead of the Buddhistic one 
after "Barlaam" had left India; in other 
words, in the lost Pehlevi version. 
"-3. Man in Well. — This parable, as will be 
seen from the references in App. IT., was one 
of the m oatLJjQpalar morals o f mediaeval sermon- 
isers. Indeed, it puts in a most vivid form the 
most central practical doctrine of both Christian 
and Buddhistic Ethics, ^he supre me attra c- 
tion of the pleasures of the senses amidst all 
the dangers of life and the perpetual threat of 
death has never been more vividly expressed. Of 
its specifically Indian character there can be no 
doubt. Dr. Kuhn, in an admirable monograph 
on the parable which he contributed to the 
complimentary volume presented to Professor 
von Bohtlingk on the Jubilee of his Doctor's 
degree (Festgruss, pp. 68-76), has given seve- 
ral instances outside the parable in which 
the Jictis indica religiosa is made a symbol of 
\. ^^Jiife> notably in the Bhagavad gita (xv. i.), 


where there is a tree whose branches^are^the . 
elements~and whose"'leaves are the things of 
sense "coloured by good and ill. Again, there is 
the marvellous tree Ilpa, from whose branches 
honey or soma trickles (Benfey, I. c, 83). 

But we are not only dependent upon general 
analogies for the proof of the Indian origin of 
this parable. Benfey discovered two forms of 
the parable in the Chinese Buddhistic work en- 
titled Avadana. Mr. Clouston* has found it 
in the eleventh book of the Mahabharata, and 
Dr. Kuhn has traced it in a Jaina work. Here 
we have the parable, not alone traced to India, 
but, in the Avadana and Jaina forms, closely 
connected with Buddhism. The story occurs 
in some of the Arabic forms of the Fables of 
Bidpai, whence it got into Europe through 
another source than the Barlaam. In the 
Bombay Arabic version of Barlaam there are 
distinctive peculiarities which are of critical 
importance, though this has not hitherto been 
observed. Most of these versions resemble one 
another, generally both in the story and in the 
allegory which it is intended to adorn. But 
there are divergences of detail which deserve 
* See his letter, Athenceum, February 7, 1891. 


careful investigation, towards which the ac- 
companying table will prove of service. 

The first thing to observe is that the Arabic 
form clearly constitutes the bridge between the 
Occident and Orient on this occasion. Alone 
of the Western versions it preserves "The 
Bees," * which exist in the two Indian forms, 
while already it shows the "Western change 
of the Indian elephant into the nondescript 
dragon. We may conclude from this that 
the Arabic does not derive from the Greek, 
and is closer to the Indian original than it. 

A still more remarkable parallel exists to 
this parable in the far-famed Norse Legend of 
the Tggdrasil.i This is a giant ash, whose 
branches spread round the world. Its three 
roots are connected with Heaven, E5rtlI7"an3 
neuj under each root gushes a well-spring p~ 
from t^e tree trickles a fall of honey. On its 

* They occur, however, without allegorical significance, 
in the Hebrew form of the Bidpai. Cf, Steinschneider, 
Ubersetzungen, p. 880, who has a mass of information on 
this parable, 

t I give this description from Grimm, Teutonic Mytho- 
logy, 796, Unfortunately he does not give any references, 
and some of the details are missing from the account given 
in the Grimmis-Mal in Vigfusson and York-Powell, Corp. 
Poet. Bor., i. 73, 



as &o 

to ® 



<» O 


topmost bough sits an eagle, while a snake is 
gnawing at its roots. A squirrel runs up and 
down, trying to create enmity between the 
snake and the eagle, and round the tree are four 
stags. Most of these animals have names given 
them which are clearly of allegorical or mytho- 
logical significance. At first sight there is re- 
markable similarity, at least in the accessories of 
the two conceptions — the tree itself, the trickling 
honey, the gnawed root, and the four stags. 

Much resemblance, however, disappears on 
closer examination. The central ideas of the 
two legends are entirely diverse. One is 
cosmological, the other eschatological.* As 
Grimm observes, " the only startling thing 
is the agreement in certain accessories " (Teut. 
Myth., 799). Yet this resemblance in acces- 
sories is the more striking on that account. 
M. B^dier has recently suggested a formula for 
testing the derivation of folktales and legends 
from one another. He separates the central 
idea of a story from the accidental accessories. 
He expresses the former by w, and the details 
by a, b, c, d, &c. His contention is, that mere 

* There is, however, reference to Hell, at least in the 
serpent and the gnawed root of the Norse version. 


resemblance in the central idea (w) does not 
prove derivation, but that resemblance in the 
details (a, b, c, d, &c.) does do so. Thus, if 
two stories be represented by the formulae 
w + a + b + c + d and w + e + f + g + h, we 
cannot conclude that the latter is derived from 
the former. The method is not so rigid or so 
objective as M. B^dier imagines. There is a 
good deal of elasticity and possibility of subjec- 
tive preference in his to. But be that as it may, 
on the present occasion we have a state of affairs 
which has not been contemplated in M. B^dier's 
scheme. The w is different, while some of the 
details are the same. We get the formulae — 

Yggdrasil =a) + a + b + c + d + e + f 
Man in Well =^ + a + b + c + d + g + h 

If the central idea had been in both cases 
the same there could be no doubt as to the 
derivative character of the myth of Yggdrasil, 
according to M. B^dier's method and formula. 
As it is, we are met by a state of affairs which, 
so far as I can observe, has not been contem- 
plated by M. B^dier, and various interpreta- 
tions will be given to the resemblance of details 
by various people. For myself, I am inclined 

^ f-7 


to think that the Yggdrasil Myth has been 
" contaminated " by the other mediaeval allegory 
of the "Man in the Well." In the first place, 
the accessories common to the two are, in large 
measure, meaningless in the Yggdrasil Myth, 
especially "The Four Stags"; in the second 
place, the Norse Myth, so far from being primi- 
tive, as Grimm regards it, is probably late and 
artificial. Messrs. Vigfusson and York-Powell, 
indeed, go so far as to suggest that the Myth 
never " travelled beyond the single poem in 
which it was wrought out by a Master-Mind " 
{Corp. Poet. Bor.j ii. 459). As for the possi- 
bility of the Barlaam Legend reaching Iceland, 
one may remember the close connection be- 
tween Norway and Constantinople through the 
Yarangars, the Norse bodyguard of the Eastern 
Emperors. Altogether, therefore, I think it 
possible, and even likely, that the Yggdrasil 
Myth, in the form in which we have it now, has 
been influenced in some of its details by the 
parable of the " Man in the Well." * 

Before leaving this interesting parable some- 

* It is fair to add that Professor Bugge, who is generally 
most ready to account for such similarities by transmission, 
does not see how to do so in the present instance. See his 


thing should be said as to its pictorial repre- 
sentations. In most of the illustrated editions 
of the Bidpai the illustration of this parable is 
given; one will be found, e.g., in my edition 
of the first English version of the Bidpai in 
this series, p. 6i. Quite at the other end of 
the world the "Man in the Well" can be 
found illustrated in a Chinese chap-book deal- 
ing with the storj, which is described and 
figured in the Boyal Asiatic Society Journal^, 
China Branch, xix i. 94. The parable also 
formed the subject for church decoration, and 
it is still to be found on the walls of several 
Italian churches. We have here a further 
example of that migration of illustrations to 
which I referred in a former volume of this 
series {Bidpai, pp. xix.-xxiv.). 

4. The Tliree Friends. — This parable is re- 
markable for the number of dramatic versions 
to which it has given rise. But before discuss- 
ing these it is worth while referring to the 
possibility that this parable reached the West 
from the East before the Barlaam was com- 
posed. There is, indeed, a somewhat similar 
parable, given by Petrus Alfonsi, a Spanish 
Jewish convert of the early twelfth century, in 




which a man tests the fidelity of his friend by- 
pretending to be a murderer. The sources of 
Alfonsi are, in every case, Oriental, yet the 
same anecdote is told by Polyaenus, a writer of 
the second century, as occurring to Alcibiades. 
While, however, the central idea of this story 
is the same as that of the Barlaam, its details 
are different, and so, according to M. Bedier's 
principle, we cannot count them as connected 
by transmission. But in a Jewish work, FirJce 
R. Eleazar, c. xliii., the parable occurs in nearly 
the same form as the Barlaam* The opening 
words of the story are sufficient to indicate 
this : " Man has, during life, three friends. 
These are — his children, his money, and his 
good works. " It is generally thought that this 
work was composed in the sixth century A.D., 
just before the Barlaam commenced its long 
travels from Persia. And if so, it might be 
thought possible that the Jewish form of the 
Legend was the original one, especially as its 
moral is pointed by appropriate Biblical verses. 
Yet in the Barlaam it occurs in the Arabic, 

* There seem to be a reference to this in the sixth 
or supplementary chapter of the Pirke Aboth. But this 
chapter is, according to Dr. Taylor, its latest and best 
editor, quite a recent addendum. 


Georgian, and Greek versions, so that it was 
almost certainly in the Indian original. Either, 
therefore, that original got to the West, or at 
least to Syria or Babylon, independently, or 
the form of the story in the Pirke Eleazar was 
derived from the Barlaam, and its composition 
must therefore be later than the seventh cen- 
tury. Of its wide spread through the Ba7iaam 
there is no doubt. It found a place in all the 
great mediaeval collections, like the Gesta Roma- 
norwrij and even in Stainhowel's Asop (cf. my 
edition of Caxton, ii. p. 206). 

Of its popularity in England an interesting 
proof was afforded by a Morality founded upon 
the parable, written in the fifteenth and printed 
in the early sixteenth century by John Scott, a 
pupil of Pynson's {circa 1592). This Morality, 
entitled Every Man, was translated into Latin 
by Christian Sterk, and printed in 1548 under 
the title Homulus ; while a Dutch poet, Peter 
van Diest, obtained a prize for a Dutch version 
of the same title, which was printed at Cologne 
in 1536. Dr. Goedeke, from whose monograph* 
I take the above items, is of opinion that the 
English version was the source of the Conti- 
* Every Man ; Homulus und Hekastus. Hanover, 1865. 


nental ones. Dr. Logeman, on the contrary, 
considers the Dutch version the source of the 
subsequent ones. I will not attempt to decide 
when such doctors disagree, but will merely 
remark that Academic dramas on the same 
theme continued to be composed by Continental 
scholars throughout the seventeenth century. 
These plays, whose titles are given by Dr. 
Goedeke, form, perhaps, the most striking proof 
of the popularity of the parable of Barlaam. 

5. Man and Bird. — The story of the man who 
caught a nightingale and let it go on promise of 
receiving three pieces of advice is well known in 
English Literature as having formed the sub- 
ject of one of Lydgate's pieces, and is equally 
well known in Germany, being the subject of a 
version by Wieland. Its earliest appearance is in 
the Barlaam Literature, but it also occurs in the 
very early Disciplina Clericalis of Petrus Alfonsi. 
It is, of course, possible that the Spanish con- 
vert got the allegory from Barlaam, but we know 
that several other of his allegories were derived 
from Eastern oral sources. It is, therefore, 
possible that he obtained the Legend of the 
" Man and Bird " from some other derivative 
of the Indian original That it had an Indian 


original would almost be proven by the fact 
that it occurs in all the four earliest versions, 
Arabic, Georgian, Hebrew, and Greek. Benfey 
(in his Einleitung, p. 380) compares the Indian 
story of the bird who promises a hunter some 
treasure if he will release him, and goes on 
to point out that in some Indian stories a 
piece of advice is often regarded as equal to 
treasure-trove. These indications serve only 
to show that the story is not inconsistent with 
Indian ideas. But, on the other hand, there 
is nothing specifically Indian in those ideas. 
But for the fact that the story occurs for the 
first time in the Barlaam we could not be 
certain of its Indian origin. But it must be 
remembered that when we prove the Indian 
provenance of some of the tales in the book, this 
adds considerably to the weight of probability 
of the same origin in cases where we can only 
indicate probability. As I have elsewhere re- 
marked, the strength of the chain of tradition 
depends on that of its strongest link, though 
this be against the catenary laws of physicists. 
6. Language of Animals. — This story only 
occurs in one of the early versions of Barlaarriy 
the Hebrew Prince and Dervish. But the 



story is remarkable as occurring as a wide- 
spread folktale. Mr. Fraser, who discusses it 
in connection with a general inquiry into the 
folk- belief in the " Language of Animals " 
{Arch. Rev. J i. 168-72), quotes Servian, Indian, 
Arabic, Italian, Annamite, Tartar, and Finnish 
versions. He does not, however, refer to the 
Hebrew one, though this is, undoubtedly, the 
earliest extant. Yet it is impossible to con- 
sider the Hebrew the source of the folktales, 
and it can, therefore, only be regarded as one of 
the somewhat rare cases in which folktales have 
been taken up into Literature. It may be worth 
while to devote some consideration to this folk- 
tale, as an instance of the problem of diffusion. 
Nobody, not even M. B^dier, would assert 
that such a complex and artificial story as this 
could have been invented casually and inde- 
pendently on two different occasions. A man 
learns the language of animals on condition he 
does not betray his knowledge. On one occa- 
sion he bursts into laughter on hearing some 
animal speak, and is pestered by his wife to 
tell her why he laughed. He answers that he 
must die if he tells her. But this, naturally, 
only increases her curiosity and persistence. 


He is about to give way, when he hears other 
animals rebuking him for his weakness. They 
know how to rule their wives ; why should not 
he? A judicious application of the stick cures 
the wife of her curiosity. 

Such are the main outlines of the story, and 
one may be pretty confident that it was only 
invented once. The chief variation occurs with 
regard to the species of animal that gives the 
advice by which the man extricates himself 
from his difficulties. In the Hebrew and in 
the Arabian Nights, as well as in all the 
European versions, the Counsellor is a Cock, 
who points out that, if he can rule a hundred 
hens, he does not see why the man cannot 
overcome a single wife. In two of the Indian 
versions, and in the Annamite Story, it is an 
Ant who gives the advice. It is probable that 
Mohammed knew this version, and refers to 
it in the Koran in the Sura entitled Ant. 
(Vulgate 27, Nbldeke-Eodwell, 68). Finally, 
the Tamul, Jaina, and Turkish versions, given 
by Benfey, and a further Indian version, which 
Mr. Fraser quotes from Bastian, make the 
Counsellor a He-goat. This criterion would 
give us three lines of derivation from the 


original. Considering the popularity of the 
Arabian Nights^ it might, naturally, be sup- 
posed that the European versions, in which 
we are mostly interested, came from that 
source. But the two Italian versions of 
Morlini and Straparola were printed in the 
sixteenth century, long before Galland had 
made the Arabian Nights popular. So that 
it is impossible to regard the latter as the 
source of the European versions. These must 
have spread from the East by the folk and 
through the folk. But that they did spread 
thence there can be but little doubt in the 
mind of any one who compares the evidence. 

7. Tlie Bobbers^ Nemesis. — Here again we 
have a tale only occurring in the Hebrew 
Barlaam, and yet certainly derived from India. 
That it is the source of Chaucer's Pardonere's 
Tale makes it of exceptional interest. It is, 
also, curious to find that the story, which, in 
its original form, is told of the Buddha, was, 
later on, told about Jesus. The original was 
discovered by Dr. Morris in the Vedablia 
Jataka^ the forty - eighth Birth - Story of 
Buddha {The Jatalca^ tr. Chalmers, vol. i. pp. 
1 2 1-4). Here Buddha foresees the Nemesis 


which will befall the robbers. In a poetical 
Persian version, and in two Arabic versions, 
given by Mr. Clouston in the Chaucer Society's 
Originals, pp. 423-9, it is Jesus, Son of Mary, 
who has the prophetic insight of the Nemesis. 

This story is only found among the folk in 
Germany, where it was, possibly, made popular 
by Hans Sachs. In Italy it formed the sub- 
ject of a Miracle Play, but, so far as I know, 
it does not occur among the Italian folktales ; 
while the Portuguese version, given by Braga, 
is not a true folktale, but is reproduced from 
a Portuguese writer of the fourteenth century. 
Thus the story is not a true folktale, and its 
diffusion has been entirely literary. 

8. King, Man, and Skull. — In the Bombay, 
Arabic, and in one of the Persion versions 
occurs the well-known story of Alexander and 
the Skull, though the great Conqueror's name 
is not mentioned. "A little dust will cover 
the eye that took in the whole world in its 
glance." This memento mori is mentioned in 
the Talmud about Alexander, and recalls other 
anecdotes given in Plutarch's Life. It may, 
therefore, be a Greek tradition about the great 
Conqueror, and is, clearly enough, an inter- 



polation in the Barlaam Literature. But its 
existence in one form of it is a proof that 
interpolations of parables were possible, and 
should make us careful before assuming that any- 
one parable was in the Indian original unless 
literary criticism can establish its provenance. 

9. Man among Ghouls. — In the Bombay- 
Arabic there occurs an interpolated story of a 
vessel that was cast ashore on an island in- 
habited by ghouls, who disguise themselves as 
beautiful maidens. This has a certain amount 
of similarity with the Myth of the Sirens, while 
it has several Indian and Buddhistic variants 
(for which see Appendix. II.), which prove that 
it was a favourite conception of the Buddhists. 
Indeed, the ghoul who disguises herself as a 
beautiful maiden is quite a frequent motif in 
Indian folktales. The chief interest of the 
story- is, however, its relation to the incident 
in the Odyssey. It has to be remembered that 
the Bishop of Colombo is inclined to think that 
certain portions of the Jatahas have been influ- 
enced by the general scheme of the Odyssey.* 
It, therefore, becomes possible that, instead of 
the Sirens being derived from the Ghouls in 

* Journ. B. A. S., Ceylon branch. 


this instance, the relationship may be of an 
inverse kind. The early date of the Odyssey 
makes it practically impossible that Homer 
could have been influenced by any transmission 
from India. On the other hand, resemblance 
of the two legends is not so close as to force 
us to assume derivation on either side. 

lo. Women as Demons. — ^The lad who had 
never seen a woman, and was told the first one 
he saw was a demon, yet prefers the demon to 
anything else he had seen, is almost the only 
parable of Barlaam which has any humour in 
it. It is a distinctly Indian conception, though 
it chimed in sufficiently with the Christian 
view of the wickedness of woman to be very 
popular among the mediaeval preachers. It 
occurs in both of the great Indian books, the 
Mahdbharata and the Ramayana^ so that its 
Indian origin is undoubted. Indeed, it is one 
of the points requiring further investigation 
whether the conception of the innate wicked- 
ness of woman, which formff a stock subject 
of Christian homiletics, was not derived from 
the similar Buddhistic conception. Some time 
ago Dr. Donaldson showed, in the Contempo- 
rary Review (September 1889), that the de- 


graded conception of the nature of woman 
current in early Christianity could not be 
traced to either Jewish or classical influence. 
It is one of the many instances in which the 
legend and doctrines of Christianity and Bud- 
dhism show such a remarkable resemblance 
that we are tempted, on folklore principles, to 
assume some Indian influence. 

These are all the Parables of Barlaam which 
seem to me to require special comment, beyond 
the information given in the notes to Appendix 
II. The resemblance of one of the remaining 
parables to the Ballad of King Cophetua, and 
of another to Dryden's Gimon and Iphigenia^ 
are merely casual, and are of only secondary 
interest from the folklore standpoint. But 
these, and others given in Appendix II., will 
not be found uninteresting by readers who care 
for good stories. I cannot flatter myself that 
anything I can say will be as interesting to the 
reader as the text of the parables given in 
Appendix II. After reading them the reader 
will be able more fully to understand their 
widespread popularity throughout mediaeval 
Europe, to which we now turn. 

Barlaam in Europe 

Of the wide extent to which the Barlaam 
was translated in the European languages no 
better evidence could be afforded than the pedi- 
gree in which I have attempted to sum up 
Dr. Kuhn's elaborate bibliographical lists of 
translations and versions. These number no 
less than sixty separate translations, many of 
which have gone through very many editions. 
From Italy to Iceland, from Spain to Russia, 
there is scarcely a land or a language into 
which Barlaam has not penetrated. Even in 
the distant Philippines, it will be seen from the 
pedigree, a Tagol version was made from the 
Spanish and printed at Manilla in 1 7 1 2. Even 
the Fables of Bidpai have scarcely attained to 
such oecumenical diffusion. 

Restricting ourselves to Europe, we find that 
it is chiefly the patronage of the Church that 



has given rise to so extensive a literature. It 
was because they were thought to be saintly 
exemplars that the lives of Barlaam and 
Josaphat became such an object of interest to 
all good Catholics. It is, accordingly, the 
versions in the sacred language of the Church 
which have, as a rule, the largest number of 
derivates. Europe read the Parables of 
Barlaam, for the most part, in Latin. 

There are two Latin versions which have 
been the main source of the European adap- 
tations of the Legend. The earlier one, attri- 
buted to one Anatasius Bibliothecarius, went 
into French, German, English, Spanish, Ice- 
landic, Irish, and Czech, through the medium 
of the VitcB Sanctorum, into which it had been 
received.* Some of these adaptations of the 
First Latin had themselves vigorous offshoots. 
Thus, the Icelandic gave birth to Danish and 
Swedish Barlaams. Solorzano's Spanish ver- 
sion was done into Portuguese, and had the 
still greater honour of being made the foun- 
dation of a drama by Lope de Vega. This 
drama, in its turn, was one of the sources 

* For details, see pedigree, which summarises Dr. Kuhn's 
bibliographical lists. 


of Calderon's most famous play La Vida es 

One of the French versions was even more 
prolific. Executed in prose in the thirteenth 
century, it got into Provencal and became 
the father of the numerous Italian offshoots 
which include a mediaeval sacred drama, and 
another drama, not perhaps so sacred, by 

This First Latin version, as received into 
the Vitce Sanctorum, was also taken up into 
two great mediaeval collections which thus 
helped to spread the Barlaam Legend and 
Parables. St. Vincent of Beauvais placed an 
abstract of it in his huge Encyclopaedia in 
the historical section {Speculum HistorialcSf 
XV.). Another abstract was included by 
Jacobus de Yoragine in his Golden Legend, 
whence it was utilised to form the subject of 
two French Miracle Plays, while the book 
itself got into English in Caxton's version, 
which we have repeated in this volume. 

Besides the Caxton, there are no less than 
four mediaeval English versions, which have 

* See Mr. MaccoU's Select Plays of Calderon, pp. 


recently been printed under the editorial care 
of Dr. Horstmann. Three in verse were in- 
cluded by him in his Altenglische Legenden 
(Paderborn, 1875), and one in prose printed 
by him in a programme in 1877.* None of 
these English versions give either the Legend 
or the Parables in a particularly attractive 
form, and, for the most part, when we can 
trace any influence of the Barlaam Literature 
in England it is, probably, directly due to one 
of the Latin versions of the Legend, or to the 
adaptations of the Parables used as Exempla 
by English monks, like Nicholas Bozon.t 
When one refers to the chapbook versions, 
one of which is reprinted in this volume, the 
short and simple annals of the English Barlaam 
are concluded. 

There yet remains another Latin version 

• I am indebted to Dr. Kolbing for an opportunity of 
seeing this latter, which is rather rare. It has accordingly 
been omitted by the Rev. J. Morrison, who has reprinted 
the three metrical versions as an Appendix to Dr. Mac- 
donald's Story of Barlaam and Josaphat (Calcutta, 1895, 
Thacker). The volume also contains The Hiitory of the 
Five Wise PkUuiopliers. 

t See Contes nutraliads de Nicole Bozon : edit. Toulmin 
Smith and Meyer, pp, 46, 59, 106, and corresponding Notes. 
Cf. Jacques de Vitry, Exempla: edit. Crane, Nos. ix., 
xxxviii., xlli., xlvii., Ixxviii,, Ixxxii., ex., cxxxiv. 


which had considerable influence upon the 
spread of the Barlaam, When Abbot Billius 
of S. Michel in Britaimy produced a Latin 
edition of the works of John of Damascus, 
he became dissatisfied with the early Latin 
version and executed one of his own, which 
appeared in the Saint's Opera, Paris, 1577, 
and separately, sixteen years afterwards. This 
gave rise to further French translations, and 
to Dutch, Polish, and Spanish adaptations. 
This last had the distinction of being adopted 
into the Tagol dialect of Manilla, and was 
received into a Spanish "Golden Legend" 
known as the Flos SoHetorum, which was irans> 
lated back into Latin, as well as into French, 
Italian, German, Dutch, and English. 

There remain only to be considered the 
Slavonic versions which spread through East 
Europe. These all derive from the Old 
Slavonic, which forms ihe basis of the modern 
Russian, and of vaiioQS Boomanian versions. 
The Legend has taken firm root in Slavonic 
soil, and has given rise, both in Bussia and 
Boumania, to a most pathetic folksong in 
which Josaphat is represented addressing the 
wilderness in which he is to pass his ascetic 


life."* It is, doubtless, from one of the 
popular Russian versions that Count Tolstoi 
has obtained his knowledge of the Barlaam^ 
of which he gives evidence in his Confessions. 

The oecumenical spread of the Barlaam Lite- 
rature, which I have now sufficiently indicated 
by this summary of the bibliography of the 
book — though this has, of course, to be sup- 
plemented by the evidence of the separate 
spread of the Parables — is sufficient proof of 
the attractiveness both of Legend and Parables 
to the mediaeval mind of Europe. When we ask 
what is the charm which attracted mediaeval 
Christendom to what is, after all, only a version 
of the life and parables of Buddha, the answer is 
not far to seek. The world has known, up till 
now, four great systems of Religion : Paganism, 
Buddhism, Christianity, and Culture, of which 
last Goethe may be described as the High 
Priest. Paganism in its various forms may 
be most simply described as the Worship of 
the Social Bond. All the other three religions 
have for their main object the salvation of 
the individual. And all three are at one as 

* Cf. Castor, Lit. Pop. Bom., pp. 46-53 ; and Kuhn's 
References, p. 53. 


to the means of salvation. ^^ Enthehren, ent- 
heliren sollst du^^ cried Goethe, and in his 
own way was only repeating what Buddha and 
Christ had said before him. Renunciation as 
the key of salvation is thus the teaching of 
all modern religions. It is because the 
Barlaam Legend, and many of its Parables, 
have presented renunciation as the ideal of 
man's striving, that it came home in the 
Middle Ages so persistently to the folk with 
whom renunciation is a necessity of existence. 
The truth embodied in this tale has indeed 
come home to lowly minds. 



[The following abstract gives the main results 
of the restoration of the original legend made from 
the various early versions, not derived from the 
Greek, by Kuhn, pp. 15-33. I ^^^^e run his §§ 3 and 
4 into one, so that after 3, his sections are numbered 
one higher than mine. In the annotations, Arab, 
references to the pages of the Bombay Kitdb., Gr. to 
the pages of Boissonade's Greek text, Heb. references 
to the chapters ("Gates") of Ibn Chisdai. For 
parables, see Appendix II.] 

I. — Barlaam. 

There lived once a king in India mighty and 
powerful, who knew not the true faith, and per- 
secuted grievously its adherents. Now he had no 
son to follow him, and this grieved him sorely. One 
night his chief wife dreamed that a huge white 
elephant came down to her from the air, but injured 

xcvii „ 

xcviii APPENDIX 

her not. The astrologers declared to the king that 
he would have a son. 

[Arab. 3-5. Gr. 1-8. Heb. Int. The name of the 
king is in Arab. Janaisar, in Georg. lahenes, in Gr. 
Abenner. (Cf. 2 Sam. iii. 6.) The name of the country 
in Arab, is Shawilabatt, a reminiscence of Kapila- 
vastu. The dream only in Arabic, but certainly in 
original, owing to Buddhistic parallels. (Cf. Beal, 
Bom. Leg. 37.)] 


The King learnt that one of his chief men had 
been converted to the true faith, and summoned 
him to him. The Sage told him of the vanity of 
the world, and besought him to humble his pride : 
but the King was incensed, and drove the Sage from 
his kingdom. 

[Arab, 5-17. Gr. 8-18. Heb. i.-iii. The sermon on 
the vanity of the world much contracted in Gr. Part 
of it is found later, Gr. 109-11.] 


A son is born to the King, who is named Yudasaf, 
and when his horoscope is cast the astrologers de- 
clare, that while he would surpass all his forebears 
in majesty, he would turn to the true faith. So 
the King built for him a beautiful palace far away 
from the haunts of men, so that he could never 
know the common lot of men or learn the nature 
of death. 


Meanwhile he continued the strictest persecution 
of the followers of the faith. 

[Arab. 17-27. Gr. 18-28. Heb. iv. v. Name of 
Prince in Georg. lodasap, in Arab. BUddsaf. K. con- 
siders latter only accidentally identical with Arabic 
title of Buddha.] 


Meanwhile the Prince grows up and begins to 
feel the loneliness of his position. He asks his 
teachers, and learns the secret of his imprisonment. 
Thereupon he begs his father to grant him greater 
freedom : but when he goes out he meets a blind 
man, and a leper, and an old man, and a corpse, 
and learns from these the common fate of man. 
Who shall give him consolation for the fate that 
awaits him? he asks, and is told that only the 
hermits of the true faith can allay the fear of death. 
These have been driven from the country. 

[Arab. 27-34. Gr. 28-35. Heb. vi. Name of the 
Teacher not given in Gr. or Arab., but Zandani in 
Georg. (Cf. Chandaka, Buddha's Charioteer.) Arab, 
alone adds a Buddhistic trait, as follows : '"An astro- 
loger declares that the boy will forsake the world, 
unless he is made to shed blood. The lad is put to 
sacrifice a sheep, but instead, wounds himself in his 
left hand, and faints." (Cf. the Buddhistic Ahinsa.) 
For the meetings, cf. Carus, Gospel of Buddha, § vi., 
and supra, pp. xliv.-v.] 


Now the holy hermit Barlaam came at this time 
to the court of the Prince in the garb of a merchant, 
and came into his presence under the pretext that 
he had precious stones to show him. When asked 
what it is, he tells the tale of : — 

V.a. The, Holy King and the Hermit^ 
which includes also the parables — 

V.a. i. The Truvipet of Death. 
V.a. ii. The Four Caskets. 
V.a. iii. The Sower. 

[Arab. 37-46. Gr. 36-44, Heb. vii,-viii. Gr. puts 
Parable of Sower first. For parables, see infra. 
Heb. adds in c. ix. that of V.b., Bird and Fisherman.'] 


Barlaam teaches the vanity of this world by 
means of the three parables — 

VI. a. The Man in the Well. 
Vl.b. The Three Friends. 
VI. c. The King of the Year. 

[Arab. 47-69. Gr. 44-120, but with much Christian 
interpolations (Biblical History, 44-56 ; the Sacrament 
of Baptism, 58-9, 88-9, Old and New Testament, 90-2, 
Repentance, 90-4, Martyrs and Monks, 100-8). None 
of these in Georg. , which, however, contains the Chris- 
tian Confession of Faith, Gr, 83-4, Other Christian 
interpolations in Gr. 126-134. Heb. x.-xiv,, adding 
the Parable of the Cannibal King, also found in Arab,, 
which has besides the Apologues, Dogs and Carrion. 
Bird and Prophet, Sun of Wisdom, King and Shepherd, 



The Prince then inquires why his father should 
have persecuted the followers of the true faith if 
their doctrines were so sound. Barlaam tells the 
parables — 

VII. a. The Heathen King and the Believing Vizier. 
(VII. a. i. The Swimmer and his Comrades.) 

Vll.b. The Rich Young Man and the Beggar's 

(VII. b. ii. Education hy Love). 

VII. c. ITie Man and the Bird. 

The Prince asks Barlaam how old he is, and is 
told " twelve years old," for only during the time 
of hermithood had he truly lived. 

[Arab. 39-117. Gr. 134-143. But Man and Bird 
in § vi. In Gr. Barlaam has lived 45 out of 70 years : 
in Georg. 18 out of 60, Heb. xvi.-xxii., adding in 
xxi. The Prophet and the Bird, The Language of 
Animals, and The Bobbers' Nemesis.] 


The Prince's guardian, Zardan, overhears the con- 
versation of Barlaam and Yudasaf, and threatens to 
tell the King, but is induced not to do so by the 

[Arab. 117-23, Gr. 179-83 (before end of § ix.), Heb. 
xxiv. and portions of xxv., xxvi., but from henceforth 
pursues an original course till end of xxxv. (= § ix.). 
Georg. omits Christian dogmatics of Gr. 180-1.] 



Barlaam tells the Prince that he must leave him, 
whereupon the Prince expresses his willingness to 
go with him. Then Barlaam tells the parable — 

IX. a. The Tame Gazelle. 

The Prince inquires after the mode of life and 
dress of the followers of the true faith, which 
Barlaam shows to him. Thereupon the Prince 
exchanges clothes with Barlaam, who goes his way. 

[Arab. 123-35. Gr. 154-160, but with transposition 
of incidents. Then 161-178, Joasaph's Baptism and 
First Communion. Georg. omits 161-3 (Confession of 
Faith), 165-6 (Mass), 166-7 (Images and Cross), 167 
(Heretics), 167-8 (Baptism and Communion). Then 
follows in Gr. 179-83 (§ viii.). Then 183-9 (Exchange 
of Clothes and Parting). There is a Buddhistic 
analogy for the exchange of clothes in that of Buddha 
and Mahakasyapa. (Cf. Beal, Eom. Leg. 145-318.)] 


The King learns through Zardan the conversion 
of his son, and consults with his astrologer, Araches. 
He recommends, either to seize Barlaam and put 
him to death, or if he cannot be found, to get a 
stranger, named Nachor, to personate him and be 
overcome in a public disputation upon the faith. 

[Arab. 135-48. Gr. 190-205. Arab, has only one 
JRakis, who is sliced by Gr. and Georg. into two, 
Araches and Nachor. Kuhn sees in Rakis some re- 
miniscence of the Buddhistic Devadatta. ] 



Before the disputation the King tries twice to 
turn his son from the New Way. At first with 
menaces, and then with persuasive mildness. 

[Arab. 148-236. Gr. 206-32. Arab, has two dis- 
cussions : in course of second, the Prince enumerates 
his ancestors and declares they were all followers of 
al-Budd. Both King and son agree as to the beauty 
of al-Budd's doctrines. Hence Kuhn sees an inter- 
polation from the Kitdb al-Budd.] 


The disputation is held, but beforehand the 
Prince threatens Nachor to tear him asunder if 
he does not conquer for the right faith. Nachor 
triumphs and flees into the wilderness. 

[Arab. 236-48. Gr. 232-62, but with the insertion 
of The Apology of Aristides.] 


The magician, Theudas, recommends the King 
to lead the Prince away by the wiles of woman, and 
narrates the parable — 

Xlll.a. The Youth who had never seen a Woman. 

The Prince resists temptation and sees in a dream 
the fate of the saints and the damned. He re- 
proaches the King, and remains firm to the true 


faith. He also interviews Theudas, and tells him 
the parable — 

Xlll.b. The Peacock and the Raven. 

Thendas is converted to the true faith, and the 
Prince goes forth into the wilderness to live a 
hermit's life with Barlaam. 

[Arab. 249-70. Gr. 263-302. Heb. xxxv. Georg. 
adds parable, Man and Amorous Wife, and omits Chris- 
tian interpolations of Gr. 286-9 (Against Idolatry), 
290-2 (Incarnation), 293-6 (Spread of Christianity), 
297-9 (Controversy of Heathen Philosophers and 

The magician is called T'edam in Georg., Tahdam 
in Arab., but Theudas in Gr. (Cf. Acts v. 37.) In 
Arab, the Prince is saved from temptation by a dream, 
and converts Tahdam by the parable of Peacock and 
Raven to the faith of al-Budd, and tells the Prince 
that forty years before he had met a wise Indian who 
bad told him that al-Budd had told that parable 300 
years before, and prophesied that the true Peacock 
would come after 300 years. 

The temptation is Buddhistic. (Cf. Ehys Davids, 
Birth Stories, i. 81, and Cams, Gospel of Buddha, § xi.) 
Theudas represents Buddha's schoolfellow, Udayin. 
(Beal, p. 349.) The parable is the ^at;e?'w J^atoZ;a. In 
Gr. and Georg. the King becomes converted, and 
after his death Joasaph puts another on the throne, 
and joins Barlaam in the wilderness. Both saints die, 
and their relics are collected. In Arab. II. the Prince 
flees by night from his palace together with his vizier. 
He is stopped by a beautiful boy, who tries to induce 
him to remain. But he continues his flight on horse- 
back, and when he arrives at the edge of the wilder- 
ness sends the vizier back with his horse and valuables. 
He then sees a great tree by a brook. On the tree 


grow fruit that thanked him as he plucked them. 
Four angels take him up to heaven, where he is taught 
of wisdom, and then returns to earth, and converts 
all he meets. He visits his native town and his father, 
and at last reaches Kashmir, where he puts his head 
to the west, and his feet to the east, and dies after 
giving his blessing to his favourite pupil Anand. Here 
we have clearly jthe Great Renunciation, and the en- 
lightenment under the Bo-Tree. The vizier is Chan- 
daka, the boy, JRahula. Kashmir is a misreading for 
Kv^inara, and Anand, of Ananda. (Cf. Carus, §§ vii., 
xi., xcvi., xcvii)] 


[The following series of abstracts give the parables 
contained in the early versions of the Barlaam, 
with bibliographical index of their occurrences 
elsewhere, as well as references with previous 
critical treatment of the separate parables. For 
the Greek I have referred to Zotenberg's edition 
of the parable at the end of the Notice (Z). For 
the Halle Arabic I have referred to the translation 
by Mr. Rehatsek in the Journ. Boy. Asiat. Soc, N.S., 
xxii. 119-55 (Reh.), for a translation of the Greek 
to Mr. R, Chambers' English version, ibid, xxiii. (C,), 
and Lubrecht's German (L.). For the Hebrew I give 
the "gate" or chapter, while for the Georgian and 
the other Arabic versions Kuhn and Hommel are 
my authorities. To each parable I have added a 
Roman numeral indicating the section of the origi- 
nal in which it is inserted. (See App. I.) Under 
the heading " Literature " I have mainly confined 
myself to the more recent monographs, which them- 
selves contain references to earlier treatments.] 

Il.a. Anger and Passion. 
To embrace the true faith it is necessary to send 
away its enemies. And what are they? Anger 


and Desire. These may support the truly human 
being who directs his life according to the Spirit, 
but for carnal beings they are deadly enemies. 

[Z. i., L. p. 8, C. 4^5.] 

V.a. The Trumpeb of Death and the Four Gaskets. 

Z. v., vi., L. p. 35, C. 433. 

A king once saw two hermits clad in scanty 
clothing passing by his state carriage. He leapt 
out, and bowed down before them and saluted them 
with every mark of respect and honour. His 
courtiers could not make anything of this, and asked 
the King's younger brother to remonstrate with 
him at his behaviour. This he did : but next day 
the King sent to him a herald with the Trumpet 
of Death, with which it was customary in that 
country to announce to high-born criminals that 
they were condemned to death. The Prince in 
great dismay went weeping to the King, and begged 
to know in what he had offended. The King 
replied, " In naught, my brother, but I will teach 
thee why I greeted the hermits so respectfully. If 
thou art so moved at seeing the herald of thy own 
brother, should I not be even more impressed at 
seeing the herald of my God ? " And so saying he 
dismissed his brother. But he caused four caskets 
to be made : two covered with gold and precious 
stones, but containing naught but dry bones. The 
other two, however, he covered only with clay, 
but filled them with jewels and costly pearls. He 


then summoned the courtiers to him and asked 
them to give judgment as to the value of the 
caskets. They replied that those covered with 
gold must contain the royal jewels, while the clay 
could be of no particular value. Thereupon the 
King ordered the caskets to be opened, and point- 
ing to the golden ones he said, "These represent 
the men who go about clothed in fine raiment but 
within are full of evil deeds. But these," he 
added, turning to the caskets of clay, "represent 
those holy men who, though ill clad, are full of 
jewels of the faith." 

[Death Trumpet. — Occurrence in Barlaam, Litera- 
ture. — See App. I., V. Occurring in Arab., Georg., and 
Gr., it must have been in Indian original, and was 
probably there also connected with "The Four Caskets." 
Nearly all the derivates of the Greek contain it. 

Indian Original. — Legend of Asoka's brother, Vita- 
soka (Burnouf J Introd.). (Cf. Katha-sarit-sagara, VI. 
xvii., tr, Tawney, i. 237.) 

Parallels. — The Sword of Damocles (Cicero, Tusc. 
Disp., V. 21 ; Oesterley on Gesta, 143 ; Wendenmuth, 
a. 21 ; Crane on Exempla, xlii.b). 

Derivates. — Jacques de Vitry, Exempla, ed. Crane, 
xlii. ; Paratus, Sermones, 145 ; Wright, Latin Stories, 
103 ; John of Bromyard, s.v. " Homo " ; Oesta Romano- 
rum, ed. Oesterley, 143 ; Abundancia exemp., f. 30.b ; 
Gower, Conf. Amant. (Cf. Swan, Gesta, 401) ; 3Iag. 
speculum exemp., ed. 1610, s.v. Judicium; Libro de 
enxemplos, 121, 223 ; Brit. Mus. MS., add. 11,284, ^' 
27b, 40b (Crane). 

Literature. — E. Braunholtz. Die Erste Nichtchrist- 
liche, Parabel des Barlaam und Josaphat, ihre Her- 
kunft und Verbreitung, Halle, 1884, but mainly con- 
cerned with Four Caskets. For reviews, &c., see that 


parable s.v. Literature ; Oesterley on Gesta, 143 ; 
Wendenmuth., ii. 21. (But confusing with Damocles) 
Crane, ut supra ; Cassell, Aus Literatur und Symholik, 
166-8 ; Kuhn, 74-5. 

The Four Caskets. — Occurrences in Barlaam. — In 
Arab., Georg., and Gr., therefore in original. In all 
derivates of Gr. 

Indian Original. — Tale of Asoka's Minister Yasas. 
(Burnouf , Introd. , 333 ; St. Hilaire, Bouddha, 105. ) 
With the addition of "The Caskets," from Buddhistic 
" Folk-Tales," on which Benfey, Pants, i. 407 seq. 

Parallels. — Buddhistic comparison of man's body to 
a casket {Lalita Vistara, tr. Foucaux, p. 358). Cf. 
Gospel parallel of Whited Sepulchres and Talmudic 
Legends, Bdba Bathra, s8a ; Synhedrin, io8b. (Cf. 
Gaster, Beitrdge, pp. 6-10.) For Folk-Tales contain- 
ing choice of Caskets, see Cosquin, I.e. 

DeHvates. — Vincentius Bellovacensis, Spec, hist, xv. 
10 ; Gerard de Roussillon, ed. Michel ; Legenda aurea, 
f. 138b, and offshoots ; Guy de Cambrai, Barlaam, ed. 
Zotenberg and Meyer, p. 37 ; Jehan de Conde, "Dou 
roi et des hiermittes " in Dits et Contes, ed. Scheler. , II. 
i. 63 ; Bartsch, Provenz. Lesebuch, 166-74 > Storia 
de' SS. Barlaam e Oiosafatte, ed. Bottari, Rome, 1734, 
p. 20 ; Vita di Giosafatte in Bini, Rime e prosa, Lucca, 
1852, p. 124 ; Boccaccio, Decamerone, x. i ; Gower, 
Confessio A mantis, ed. Pauli, ii. 203 ; Morlini, nov. v. ; 
Straparola, Notti, fav. v. ; Carion, Chronica, 1533, f. 
2013b (Kaiser Sigmund, see Genealogy for offshoots) ; 
Bromyard, Summa Prcedicantium, s. v. " Honor" ; Gesta 
Eomanorum, ed. Oesterley, 251, ed. Herrtage, p. 294 ; 
Shakespeare, Merchant of Venice, ii. i, 7, 9 ; iii. 2 ; 
Jacques de Vitry, Exempla, ed. Crane, xlvii. ; Bozon, 
Contes moralises, ed. Toulmin Smith and Meyer, 

Literature. — Braunholtz, ut supra. (Cf. Reviews by 
Zingarelli, Arch. Tradiz. Popol, iii. 143-6 ; Brandes, 
Anglia, viii. 24-6 ; Varnhagen, Deuts. Lit. Zeit. 1885, 


p. 17 ; Giorn. Lett. Ital. , iii. 142 ; Bolte, Jahrcsher. 
German. Philol., vi. 116); Simrock, Quellen, iii. 201 ; 
Landau, Quellen ; Benfey, Pants, 1. 407 ; Oesterley, 
Herrtage, Crane, 11, cc. ; Kuhn, 74-5.] 

V.b. Bird and Fisherman. 

A bird saw a fisbermaii drawing a fisli to land, 
and pounced down upon it and swallowed it. But 
soon the fish-hook caught in its throat, and the 
fisherman began to pull it in. With difiiculty the 
bird freed itself ; but henceforth it dared not 
swallow any fish, for fear of a similar danger, and 
thus died of hunger. 

[Only in Heb. ix., but probably in original, since 
certainly Indian, (Cf. Hijpotad., iv. loi ; Benfey, 
Pants, i. 227,)] 

V.c. The Sower. 

When the sower sows his seed some falls on the 
highway, where the passengers tread it under foot. 
Others are blown away by the wind. Others picked 
up by the birds. Some seeds fall on rocky ground, 
and grow only till the roots reach the rock. Others 
fall among the thistles. Only a small portion falls 
in rich earth, where it grows and brings forth fruit. 
The sower is the Sage ; the seed is his wisdom. 
The seeds that fall by the wayside, &c., are pieces 
of wisdom that come into one ear only to go out 
of the other. Those falling on rocky ground are 
not taken to heart. Those among thorns meet 



with opposition from the senses. Only that which 
takes root in the heart brings forth fruit in the 

\OccfVLrren/ies in Barlaam. — In Arab., Georg,, and 
Heb. c. X,, and Gr. ; probably, therefore, in the 
original in some form, but the details are from the 
New Testament. 

Source.— Parable of Sower, Matt. xiii. 3 ; Markiv. 3 ; 
Luke viii. 5. 

Parallel. — Sutta Nihata, tr. Fausboll, pp. 1-5. (Cf. 
Cams, Gospel of Buddha, § 74. )] 

Vl.a. The Man in the Well. 
Z. viii., L. p. 93. 

A man saw a raging .nriirnn]., and flying from 
him fell into a pit. But as he fell he caught hold 
of a branch which saved him from falling to the 
bottom, while he rested his feet upon a projecting 
stone. Looking about him he saw two mice, one 
white and one black, gnawing at the root of the 
branch which he was holding, while at the bottom 
of the well he saw a fiery dragon, and near the 
stone on which his feet rested, a serpent, with four 
heads. But just at this moment he noticed on 
the branch he was holding a few drops of honey 
trickling down, and forgetting the unicorn, the 
dragon, the snakes, and the mice, he directed his 
whole thoughts how he might obtain the sweet 

Now the unicorn is death, the well is the world, 
full of manifold evil, the two mice are the night 


and tlie day which, eat away the branch of life, 
while the four serpents are the four elements 
of man's body, and the fiery dragon represents 
hell. The few drops of honey, the pleasures of 
this world. 

{Occurrences in Barlaam. — In Arab., Georg., and 
Gr. , therefore in Indian original. 

Indian Original. — Mahabharata, xi. (Cf. Clouston, 
Athenceum, Feb. 7, 1891.) Jaina version, Chinese ver- 
sion, Avadanas, i. 132 seq., 191 seq., Tibetan version. 
(Cf. Germania, xxxv. 351 seq.) For variations, see 
supra, p. Ixxiii. 

Parallels. — For symbol of tree, cf. Madhusudana on 
Bhagavadgita, xv. i. A reference to elephant in 
Upanishads, S.B.E., xv. 167. For resemblance with 
Yggdrasil, see Grimm, Teut. Myth., 1331, 1536. 

Derivates. — Occurs in Bidpai literature, cf. Bidpai, 
ed. Jacobs, p. Ixx. (add. Directorium, ed. Derenbourg, 
p. 34 and refs. in note), as well as in almost all ver- 
sions of Barlaam. In Arab, Romance of Avicenna, 
cf. Noldeke, Doctor und Garkoch, p. 53 ; Berachyah 
Nakdan, 68 (cf. Steinschneider, Z.D.M.G., xxvii. 562; 
Central-Anzeiger, i. 134 ; Uebersetzungen, 880). Gesta, 
ed. Oesterley, 168 ; Legenda aurea, c. 180 ; Vincent 
Bellovac, Hist., xiv. 15 ; 3Ior.,I., i. 20 ; Odo deShering- 
ton, ap. Hervieux, Fab. Lat., ii. 626 ; Abund. Exempl., 
f. 51 ; Bareleta, Sermones, ed. 1505, f. 9 ; Spec. Exempl., 
ed. 1487, iv. 16; Magn. Spec. Exempl., ed. Major, s.v. 
" Delitiae," iv. ; Libra de los Gatos, 48 ; Jacques de 
Vitry, Exempla, ed. Crane, 134 ; Bozon, Contes Mora- 
list, 29 ; Dit de VUnicorne et du Serpent in Jubinal, 
Nouv. rec, ii. 113 ; and Lidforss, Choix, 1877, No. 16 ; 
Stephen de Borbone, Hubert de Roman, 50 ; Rev. d. 
lang. rom., 3rd ser., ix. 161. Cats Dutch poem, MS. ; 
Manul Philes, Carmina, i. 126 seq. ; Slav, version by 
Veselovsky (see Kuhn, 77). Chinese Chapbook, ap. 
R.A.S., China branch, XIX., i. 94. 



Illustrations. — Schnaase, Oesch. d. Bild. Kunste, 
2te, Auf., vii. 262, R. A.S., m< supra ; Philes and Chinese 
Chapbook, ut supra; Bidpai, ed. Jacobs, pp. xxx. 61. 
Literature. — Kuhn in Fcstgruss an Otto von Boht- 
inr;k, pp. 68-76, with addenda in Barlaam, 76-7 ; 
Oesterley, Crane, ut supra ; Toulmin Smith and Meyer 
on Bozon, p. 239 seq. ; Landau, Quellen, 222 seg. ; 
Clouston, ut supra; Knust in Jahrb. rom. eng. Litt., 
vi. 36 seq. ; Gott. Oel. Am., 1867, p. 1299 seq. ; Benfey, 
Pants, i. 81, ii. 528 ; Jacobs, ut supra.'\ 

Vl.b. The Three Friends. 
Z. ix., L. p. 95, C. 438. 

A man once had three friends, two of whom he 
loaded with gifts and friendly acts ; the third he 
neglected. One day he was seized and brought 
before the King, who ordered him to find security 
for a great sum. He went to his first friend, who 
told him he could only give him a single garment. 
And the second said he would accompany him a 
little way to the King, but then had to return to 
his own house. As a last resort he went to the 
third friend, and begged him to forgive his negli- 
gence and help him in his strait. But the third 
friend received him kindly, and said he would go 
before to the King and try and rescue him out 
of the hands of his enemies. 

The first friend is wealth ; the second, wife and 
children ; the third, good works. 

[Occurrences in Barlaam. — In Arab., Georg., and 
Gr. (Z. ix., L. p. 95), therefore in the original. 
Indian Original. — Not yet discovered, though Kuhn, 


p. 78, gives several Indian proverbs in which good 
works are called the only friends that accompany you 
into the next life. 

Parallels. — Petrus Alf onsi, Disc. cler. , ii. , for derivates 
of which see Goedeke, Evert/ Man, 1-7. Cf. Caxton, 
^sop, ed. Jacobs, Alf. i., A. i, 263-4 5 Pirke Eleazar, 
43. (Cf . I. Levi in Rev. d. Etudes juives, xviii. 83-9 ; 
Steinschneider, Uebersetzungen, 864.) 

Derivates. — In all translations of Barlaam ; Rudolf 
von Ems, Barlaam, ed. Pfeiffer, 120-7 > Legenda aurea, 
180 ; Vincent Bellovac, Hist., xv. 16 ; Mor., I., iv. 19 ; 
III, , X. 21 ; Holkot, Moralit., 28 ; Bromyard, Summa, A. 
xxi. 5 ; Junior, Scala seli, 9 ; Nic. Purg., Dial, creat., 
Directorium, iv. 2, D. ; Bareleta, Sermones, 49 ; 
Martin Polon, Promptuarium, xi, B. ; Specul. Exempt. , 
iv. 17 ; Wright, Latin Stories, 108 ; Selentroist, 15, B. ; 
Bodmer, Fab. , 247 ; H. Sachs. , I. , i. 100 ; Herder, Werke, 
ix. 64, ed. 1829 ; Svenski Legendarium, 615 ; Jacques 
de Vitry, Exempla, 120 ; Peregrinus, Sermones, f. 30 ; 
Libro de Enxemplos, No. 16 ; Gesta Romanorum, ed. 
Oesterley, 138; Acerra philol., 1708, v. 95; Sancho, 
Castigos, 36 ; Manuel, Conde Lucanor, 48. 

Dramatic Versions. — Every Man, ed. Goedeke, 1865 ; 
Peter Vandiest, ed. Logeman, 1893; Christian Ischyrius, 
Homulus; Jaspar Gennep, Commedia hamuli Ein 
schon Spyl., 1540, &c. ; Homulus Comedie ofte spel, 
Amsterdam, 1633 ; G. Lankveld (Macropedius), He- 
castus. Colon, 1539 ; L, Rappolt, Ein schon christlish 
Spiel, Hecastus, genannt. ; Hans Sachs, Ein Comedi 
von dem reichem sterbendem Menschen, 1649 ; other 
German translations by Spanengbui-g, Ravenstock, 
Schreckenberger, Saurius, Himmelreich, Striceris De 
dudesche Schlomer, Lubeck, 1584. 

Literature. — Goedeke, Every Man, Homulus und 
Hekastus, Ein Beitrag zur internationalen Littera- 
turgeschichte ; Logeman, Levi, Steinschneider, Oester- 
ley, Crane, ut supra.] 


VI.c. r/i« Kirvg of the Year, 
Z. X., L. p. 98, C. 441. 
It was the custom in a certain country to select 
a stranger to rule over them each year, who for 
that time had full power and enjoyed all the 
treasures of the kingdom, but at the end of the 
year he was stript of all his wealth and power and 
banished to a desolate island. But on one occasion 
the King of the year learnt his future fate, and in 
anticipation sent to the island a large amount of 
treasure, clothing, food, and all necessities and 
luxuries, so that he wanted for nothing when the 
time came for his banishment. 

[Occurrences in Barlaam. — In Arab., Georg., Heb., 
and Gr. (Z. x., L. p, 98), therefore in original. 

Parallels. — Talmud, Babat Bathra, iib ; Dham- 
mapada, 25, 235-8 ; Matt. vi. 19, 20, 

Derivates. — Bechai ibn Pakuda, Choboth Halehahoth 
(in Arab., ed. Zotenberg, p. 90); Jacques de Vitry, 
Exempla, ix. ; Legenda aurea, 180 ; Stephen de Bor- 
bone, Hubert de Roman ; Vincent Bellovac, Hist., xv. 
17; Mor., II., i. 4; Junior, Scala cell, 21b. ; Brom- 
yard, Summa, O., i. 4 ; Specul. Exempl.,\v. 18 ; Manuel, 
Conde Lucanor, 49 ; Libro de Enxemplos, 310 ; Svenskt 
Legendar., 616 ; Peregrinus, Sermones, ix., post Pent. ; 
Paratus, Sermones, ii. ; Magn. Specul. Exempl. s.v. 
"Mundus;" Oesta, ed. Oesterley ; Gallensis, Com- 
munialoquium, VII. , i. S j Selentroist, f. 14 ; Brit. Mus. 
MS., Add. 26,770, f. 78; 11,284, f- 78; Langbein, 
Werke, vii. 216-9. 

Literature. — Oesterley, Crane, Goedeke, 205; Weiss- 
lovits, 154-60 ; Kuhn, 79, 80 ; Kohler, Jahrb. Bom. 
Eng. Litt., ii. 22 ; Cassel, Aus Litteratur und Si/mbolik, 


Vl.d. Dogs and Carrion. 

Dogs are quarrelling about some carrion, when a 
stranger passes by. They immediately turn upon 
him and attack him altogether, though he has no 
desire to interfere with their prey. 

The carrion is riches, the dogs worldly people, 
and the stranger the pious hermit. 

[Occurrences in Barlaam. — Only found in Heb., c. 
xxiii. , and Arab. , in all three forms of it. { Cf . Rehatsek, 
p. 140.)] 

VI.e. The Cannibal King. 

A king is forced to flee wdth wife and children 
before the enemy. One of the children dies, and 
they are forced to eat him. So the pious eat from 
necessity, while others eat with appetite. 

[Occurrences in Barlaam. — In Heb. c. xii., and Arab. 
(cf. Reh., p. 149), not in Gr., which probably omitted 
it for aesthetic reasons. 

Indian Original. — Tibetan, Dsanglun, tr. Schmidt, 
xxviii. seq., ap. Benfey, Pants, i. 391. 

Literature. — Kuhn, 21 ; Cassel, 227 ; Weisslovits, 
87 ; Benfey, I.e.] 

Vl.f. The Sun of Wisdom. 
Wisdom is like the sun, which shines everywhere 
and upon all. Yet we cannot always see it, because 
some have weak sight, and cannot bear its brilliance ; 
others are blind, and cannot see at all. 

[Occwrrences in Barlaam. — In Heb., c. xv., and 
Arab. ; only slight traces in Gr. 
Literature. — Kuhn, 21 ; Weisslovits, 94.] 


Vl.g. The King and Shepherd. 

A king hunting invites a shepherd to eat with 
him in the heat of the day. 

ShepJierd. "I cannot eat with thee, for I have 
already promised another greater than thee." 

King. "Who is that?" 

Shepherd. " God, who has invited me to fast." 

King. " But why fast on such a hot day ? " 

Shepherd. "I fast for a day still hotter than 

King. " Eat to-day, fast to-morrow." 

Shepherd. "Yes, if you will guarantee that I 
shall see to-morrow." 

[Occurrences in Barlaam. — Only in Heb., c. xvi., pro- 
bably from Mahomedan source. 
Literature. — Weisslovits, 97, loi.] 

Vl.h. The Bird and the Prophet. 

A bird, fearing for the safety of its eggs, placed 
them in the nests of other birds. When the storm 
arose and the waves approached, it went to the 
various nests and uttered its cry. Its young ones 
recognised it and flew away with it, while the other 
fledglings remained to be destroyed. 

So a prophet summons the faithful, who alone 
are saved from destruction by recognising his voice. 

{Occurrences in Barlaam. — In Heb., c. xix., and 
Xifera^wre.— Weisslovits, 109.] 

cxviii APPENDIX 

VI I. a. The Heathen King and the Believing Vizier. 
Z. xi., L. p. 113, C. 442. 

There was once a king good in everything, except 
that he was wanting in faith. His vizier desired 
to cure him of his disbelief, and one night went 
out with him into the city. Seeing a light in a 
hut, they looked through and saw a poor couple, 
clothed in rags, but enjoying themselves with 
dancing and singing. Then the King asked, " How 
is it that you and I, so rich in honour and wealth, 
have never enjoyed so much pleasure as these 

"Why, what do you think of their life, 
King ? " answered the vizier. 

" More wretched, unhappy, and horrid than any 
I have ever seen," answered the King. 

" Then," said the Vizier, " Know, King, this our 
life, even of us more fortunately placed of men, 
seems but as their life in the eyes of the Most 
High. Only those who seek imperishable wealth 
are truly happy. And that wealth is, belief in 
. our Lord and Saviour." 

[Occurre'oces in Barlaam. — In Arab,, Georg., Heb., 
and Gr. (Z, xi., L. p. 113). 

Indian Original. — Unknown, but the happy pair 
seem to belong to the caste of Mehter (cf. Kehatsek, 
p. 14s, I.e. ; Kuhn, 22 n.). 

Dcrivates. — Jacques de Vitry, Exempla, ed. Crane, 
78 ; Wright, Latin Stories, 4 ; Libro de Enxemplos, 
288 ; Suchomlinoflf, Cyrill of Turoff (Russ, 1858), pp. 
50-3 (cf. Ku]?n, 74 n.).] 


Vll.a. i. The Swimmer. 

A swimmer and his friend went bathing together. 
The friend got out of his depth, and the swimmer 
feared that he would drown, but as he went to his 
assistance, he had the further fear that his friend 
would seize him and cause them both to drown. 
But nevertheless he went near, and by inducing 
his friend to make the appropriate motions saved 
them both. 

[In Arabic only, Reh. 147.] 

Vll.b. The Rich Young Man and the Beggar^s 

Z. xii., L. p. 117, C. 444. 

A rich merchant once desired to betroth his son 
to a wealthy, beautiful, and well-bom girl. He, 
however, refused the match, and fled from his 
father's house. During his journey he entered a 
poor man's hut to shelter himself from the heat. 
There he saw the daughter of the house working 
with her hands and praising God for His goodness. 
Asking her why she was so grateful, she replied — 
"Because the good God has given me the chance 
of entering Paradise." Struck by this answer, the 
young man desires to marry her, but her father 
would not consent till the young man agreed to 
put aside his rich clothing and live their life. He 
does 80, and for a time assists in the work of the 
house, till at last the father is convinced of his 


sincerity and betroths him to his daughter, and 
then shows him a hidden treasure which he gives 
to him. 

{Occurrences in Barlaam. — In Arab., Georg., Heb., 
and Gr. (Z. xii., L. p. 113), therefore in original. The 
Halle MS. of the Arab, omits. 

Parallels, — Cf. Percy Ballads, King Cophetua.] 

Vll.b. ii. Education by Love. 

A king had a son who grew up coarse and 
thoughtless, ill-bred, and undignified. All the 
learned men of the kingdom tried in vain to im- 
prove him. One day his teacher appeared before 
the King and announced a new misfortune, the 
Prince had fallen in love. When the King heard 
this he gave his mantle to the teacher, and thanked 
him for the good news. Summoning the girl to 
him, he instructed her to refuse to have anything 
to do with the Prince till he behaved in a more 
dignified and well-bred manner. Accordingly the 
Prince set himself to improve his manners, and 
soon became a model of propriety. 

[Occurrences in Barlaam. — Only in Heb., c. xviii., 
where it is inserted in VII. b. 

Parallel. — Boccaccio, Dec, V. i. ; Dryden, Gimon 
and Iphigenia" {ci. Steele, "To love her was a liberal 
education "). 

Literature. — Weisslovits, 108 ; Kuhn, 43 ; Landau, 
Quellen, 103.] 


VII.c. Man and Bird. 

Z. vii.,L. p 83,0.435. 

A man caught a nightingale, which promised him 
three precious pieces of advice if he would let him 
free. He agreed ; whereupon the nightingale said, 
" Do not attempt the impossible. Regret nothing 
that is past. Believe no improbable tale." The 
man then let the nightingale free. He, desiring 
to test him, cried, "Fool, you little know what 
treasure you have lost. I have within me a pearl 
as large as an eagle's ^gg." The man, full of greed, 
tried to entice the nightingale within his door 
again, promising to let her go free. The nightin- 
gale said, " Now I see what use you will make of 
my three pieces of advice. I told you never to 
regret what was past, and yet you are sorry that 
you let me go free. I advised you not to try the 
impossible, and yet you are attempting to get me 
again within your power. I told you never to 
trust the improbable tale, and yet you believed 
me when I said that I had within me a pearl 
greater than my whole body." 

[Occuri'ences in Barlaam. — In Arab., Georg., Heb., 
and Gr. , therefore in original. 

Indian Original. — Cf. Benfey, Pants, i. 380. 

Parallels. — Tutinameh, tr. Iken, vii. 46 ; tr. Rosen, 
i. 137 (cf. Benfey, I.e.). 

Derivates. — Petrus Alfonsi, Disc. cler. xxiii. ; Cax- 
ton's /Esop, ed, Jacobs, Alf. vi. ; Gesta, ed. Oesterley, 
167; Jacques de Vitry, 28; Nic. Purg., Dial, creat. 
100 ; Vartan, Fables, xiii. ; Brolnyard, Summa, M, xi. 
78 ; Junior, Scala celi, vii.b. ; Wright, Latin Stories, 


b. 170 ; Legenda aurea, ed. Grasse, 180 ; Libra de 
Enxemplos, 53 ; Stainhowel, ^sop, collect, vi. (and 
derivates) ; Le Grand, Fabliaux, iii. 113 ; MysUre du 
roi Advenis in Hist, du theatre franc. , ii. 475 ; Marie 
de France, ed, Roquefort, i. 314, ii. 324 ; Selentroist, 
i4.b ; Luther, Tischreden, 612 ; Hans Sachs, D. iv. 
428 ; Kirchhof, Wendunmuth, iv, 34 ; Wieland, Vogel- 
gesang, ap. Werke, ed. 1796, xviii, 315 ; Le lai de Loiselet, 
ed. G. Paris, 1883 ; Lydgate, Chorle and Byrde ; cf. 
Temple of Glass, edit, Schick, p. c. 135. 

Literature. — Oesterley, Crane, Benfey, Jacobs, Paris, 
Schick, II. cc] 

VII, c. ii. The Tyrannical King. 

There was once a king who made every one 
tremble around him. One day a servant, when 
handing him the soup, from fear spilt a little. 
Before the King could express his rage, the servant 
emptied the whole tureen. "Why did you do 
that?" said the King. "I knew, my Lord," said 
the servant, "that you would punish me severely 
for my first small fault, and thereby lose dignity 
in the eyes of your people, so I therefore arranged 
to do something worth the punishment I saw forth- 
coming." Thereupon the King forgave him, and 
became less tyrannical in future. 

{Occurrences in Barlaam. — Only in Heb. , c. xxiv.] 

Vll.d. Desert and Garden. 

There is a desert full of robbers and beasts of 
prey. In the midst is a garden with a wall too 

APPENDIX cxxiii 

high to be scaled ; on the other side is a sea of 
poison, over which blows a fiery simoon. 

The desert is the world, the garden represents 
the joys of the faithful, the sea the misery of the 

[Occurrences in Barlaam. — In Arabic, Reh., 151.] 

VlI.e. Language of Animals. 

A man once learnt the language of animals, but 
on condition that if he betrayed the secret he 
would have to die. One night he heard an ass 
recommend an ox to feign illness so as to escape 
work, whereat he laughed aloud. His wife wished 
to know why he laughed, but he would not tell 
her. Next day, when the ox pretended to be ill 
he ordered the ass to do its work ; and at night, 
when the ass returned, he told the ox that he was 
to be slain on the morrow if he were not better. 
Whereat the man laughed again. His wife was 
eager to know why he laughed, even though he 
told her it would be his death to let her know. 
" Either your death or mine," said the wife, " for 
I will not eat till I know ; " so the man agreed to 
let her know the next day, and prepared for his 
death. All was sadness in the house, even the 
dogs would not eat their food, but a cock and his 
wives pecked away merrily, till one of the dogs 
said, "Do you not know our master is to die 
to-day ? " " More fool he," said the cock ; " I can 
rule ten wives." "What can you do?" said the 


dog. " Take a stick to her," said tlie cock, " and 
I'll warrant she won't want to know his secrets." 
The man, who had heard this, followed the cock's 
advice, and saved his life. 

\Occurrcnces in Barlaam. — Only in Heb., c. xxiv., 
where the language is taught by King Solomon, but 
certainly Indian in origin. 

Indian Original. — Harivanso, 1274 seq. (tr. Benfey, 
Or. u. Oec, ii. 148) ; Ramayana, II., xxxv. 15 seq. ; 
Tamel, Vedala Cadai (tr. Kabington, Misc. Trans., 

i- 55). 

Parallels. — ^sop, ed. Halm, 18 (cf. Eraser, Arch. 
Rev., i. 81-91, 161-181). 

Derivates. — Tutinameh, tr. Rosen., ii. 236; Peter 
Alfonsi, Disc, cler., ii. 7 ; Arabian Nights, First tale 
in all versions ; Gesta Romanorwm, ed. Oesterley, qy. 
Wuk, VoWs Mdrchen der Serben, iii. (Denton, Serbian 
Folk-tales; Leger, Contes Slaves, xi. ; Krauss, Sagen 
der Slid Slaven, I. xcvii. ) ; Nonthu Kpakaranam in 
Z'eits. f. Ethn., i. 152 ; Morlini, Novelloe, Ixxi. ; Stra- 
parola, xii. 3 ; Landes, Contes Annamites, xcix. ; Rad- 
loof, Proben, vi. 250 seq. (man dies) ; Schreck, Finn. 
Mdrchen; Koelle, Afric. Nat. Lit. (Grimm, Hunt, ii. 
541) ; Raymond Lully, Libre de Maravelles, VII., vi. 
42 ; Reinisch, Sahosprache, i. 109 seq. 

Literature, — Benfey, Mdrchen von der Tiersprache 
in Orient und Occident, ii. 133-71 (add. Klein Schrift, 
ii. 234-b) ; J. G, Fraser, Language of Animals, ut 
supra; Steinschneider, Manna, loi seq. ; Arch. Slav. 
Phil., vii. 318, 515 ; Z.D.M.G., xlvi. 402 ; Kuhn, 81.] 

VII. f. The Robbers' Nemesis. 

Two swindlers plotted to rob a stranger mer- 
chant of his money. They brought him jewels 
to a feast, but intended to rob him of them ; but 


each envying the other his share in the booty, 
secretly put poison in his food, so they both died, 
and the merchant was saved. 

[Occurrences in Barlcuam.— Only in Heb. , c. 27, but 
certainly Indian. 

Indian Original. — Vedabhha Jataka, ed, Cowell, No. 
48, i. 121-4, Kashmir version, tr. Knowles, in Orien- 
talist, i. 52-60, 

Parallels. — Cosquin, Contes de Lorraine, No. xxx. 
(Cf. notes i. 287-8.) 

Derivates. — Persian, Attar, Macibat Nama, tr. 
Ruckart, Z.D.M.G., xiv. 280-7 (tr. Warner, Prov. Pers. 
Cent. , Leyden, 1644, p. 31) ; Arabian Nights, tr. Burton, 
ii. 158 seq., and supp., i. 250 seq. (cf. Orientalist, i. 
4.6-7) ; Tibetan Schiefner-Ralston, 286-7 ; Chaucer, 
Pardonere's Tale; Ciento Novelle Antiche, Ixxxiii. 
(libro di novelle, Ixxxii. ) ; Morlini, Novellm, xlii. ; 
D'Ancona, Rappres Sacre, ii. 33 seq. ; Fabricius, Cod. 
Apoc. Nov. Test. , iii. 395 ; Robles, Leyendas Moriscas, 
No. I ; Hans Sachs Braga, Cantos, No. 143 ; P. Paris, 
Man. Franc, iv. 83 ; L. Hunt, Death and the Ruffians. 

Literature. — H. D. Francis, Vedabbha Jataka com- 
pared with the Pardonere's Tale, Camb., 1884, 8vo, pp. 
12 ; R. Morris, Cont. Rev., 1881, i. 738 ; Academy, 22nd 
Dec. 1883, 12th Jan. 1884; Tawney in Jour. Phil., 
212-8 : Glouston, Pop. Tales, i. 379-406 ; Chaucer 
Society, Originals, 129-34, 415-36; Skeat, Chaucer, iii. 
439-45 ; Griinbaum, Neu£ Beitrdge, 279- 82 ; Kuhn, 82.] 

IX.a. The Tame Gazelle. 

Z. xiii., L., p. 130, C. 446. 

A rich man had once a young gazelle. As it 
grew up it began to long for the wilderness. So 
one day it went and joined a herd of wild gazelles, 


but came back at night. And henceforth it used 
to join the herd every day. This at last was 
noticed. And the servants of the rich man fol- 
lowed it on horseback, killed many of the wild 
gazelles, and drove back the tame one, which they 
ever afterwards kept chained up. 

[Occurrences in Barlaam. — In Arab., Georg., and 
Gr. (Z. xiii, , L. p. 130, C. 446). Not in Hebrew, which 
substitutes "Greedy Hound," ix.b. q.v.l 

IX.b. The Greedy Dog. 

In two neighbouring cities a marriage was to be 
held on one and the same day. A greedy dog who 
knew of this determined to attend both wedding 
breakfasts. He set off early for one town, but 
arrived too late, and when he went to the other 
the feasting was over, and he only got blows. 

[Occurrences in Barlaam. — Only in Heb., c. xvii., 
where it is substituted for "The Tame Gazelle." 

Parallels. — iEsop, Dog and Sliadow (Caxton, ed. 
Jacobs, Ro. i. 5).] 

X.a. The Two Halves of a King's Life. 

A prince being born during the conjunction of 
Jupiter and Venus, astrologers prophesy a change 
in his life. When he succeeds he lives in great 
splendour till middle age. At a great feast, sur- 
rounded by his most costly ornaments, he thinks 
of looking at himself in the glass, and sees his grey 

APPENDIX cxxvii 

hairs, wliich cause liim to devote himself to a life 
of piety. 

{Occurrences in Barlaam. — Only one of the Arab, 

Indian Original. — Clearly a variant of the life of 
Buddha, wherefore Kuhn suggests derived from the 

Literature. — Hommel, I.e. i66 ; Kuhn, 15. 

X.b, King, Man, and Skull. 
A wicked king was bringing his realm to ruin, 
when a sage came before him and kicked a skull 
in front of him. Then he took weights and scales 
and measured out as much dust as would weigh a 
dihrem, and placed this in the eyes of the skulL 
On being asked what was the meaning of this 
action, he said, "This skull was the skull of a 
king, and he used to pay royal honours to it ; but 
finding it insensible, he then kicked it about to 
see if it could feel contumely. But as the King 
had seen, there was no sign of resentment in the 
skull ; and he wanted to know if that could be a 
king's skull when a dihrem weight of dust could 
cover the eyes, which, when living, possessed all they 
saw." The King was struck by the worthlessness of 
all his possessions, and became converted to piety. 

[Occurrences in Barlaam. — Only in one of Arab, 
versions and in its Persian translation. Probably de- 
rived from Alexander Romance. 

Parallels.— TaXmnd, Tamid, 526 (Steinschneider 
Uebers., 896). 

Literature. — Hommel, 167 I.e. ; Zacher, Alex. Magni 
Iter, 1859, p. 17 ; Hertz, Aristoteles in Alexander 

cxxviii APPENDIX 

DichtUTigen; Eisenmenger, Entdecktes Judenthum, ii. 
321 ; Vogelstein, Adnotationes ad Fabulas de Alex. 
Magno, 1865, p. 16; Steinschneider, I. c.,% 540. 

X,c. Tlie Prince who left his Father's House. 

A prince, tlie only son of a king, in tlie midst 
of play in his boyhood, took one step and said, 
"Your fate is to have trouble." Then a second 
step, and said, "And to become old and feeble." 
Then a third step, saying, "And then you will 
die." Astrologers, thereupon, announced that he 
would become a great saint. And the King put 
him a guard so he could never be left alone. One 
day, however, he escapes them, and encounters a 
funeral, and learns that all men must die. He 
tells his guard that if this is true they are mad. 
The astrologers recommend the King to marry the 
Prince. On the wedding night, the Prince calls for 
wine for his bride, and when she sleeps rises and 
leaves her. He finds a companion, and they both 
take refuge in the castle of another king, where 
the Princess falls in love with the Prince ; but he 
rejects her overtures and flees. The King has him 
pursued and brought back. He tells the following 
parables : — 

The Drunken King^s Son who fell into a Grave. 

The Thieves who stole a Golden Vessel containing 

The Prince freed from Prison falling into a Pit 
with Dragons. 

The Man who fell among the Ghouls. 


By these parables he frees himself, and wanders 
about converting numbers to the true faith, till at 
last he comes back to his father, the old King. 

[Occurrences in Barlaam. — Only in Bombay form of 
the Arab, version. 

Indian OrigvnaZ. — Clearly a variant of the Buddha 

Parallels. — The legend of St. Alexis has the episode 
of the desertion of the wife on the wedding night. 

Literature. — Hommel, 169-72 ; Kuhn, 15.] 

X.c. iv. The Man among the Ghouls. 

A ship was shipwrecked on an island inhabited 
by ghouls, who turned themselves into beautiful 
maidens to entice the shipwrecked sailors. They 
lived very happily for some time, till the captain 
came across an earlier victim of the ghouls, who 
told him what they were. He also told him that 
their only chance of escape was from a gigantic 
bird who visited the island once a year. But the 
captain is warned, that if he looks back when 
escaping, he will fall off and be drowned. On the 
appointed day the sailors intoxicate the ghouls, and 
perch upon the back of the bird. The ghouls, 
however, call to the sailors as they depart, and 
when the captain lands he finds that none of the 
sailors have survived the voyage. 

[Occurrences in Barlaam. — Only in one form of 

Indian Original. — Valahassa Jataka, ed. Fausboll, 
ii. 127 ; tr, E. Miiller in Pali Gramma/r, 128 seq. 

Parallels. — Myth Sirens (cf. Academy, 13, 27th Aug. 



1881) ; Sindahad Cycle (Clouston, 50, 150, 235), tr. 
Tawney, i. 60, Katha-Sarit-Sagara. 

Derivates of Indian. — Divya Vadmia, ed. Co well 
and Neil, 524-6; Tibetan in J.R.A.S., 1888, 504-6; 
Chinese, Beal, Romantic Legend, 332-40 ; Buddhist 
Eeeords, ii. 241. 

Literature. — H. Wenzel, A Jataka Tale from Tibetan 
in J.R.A.S., I.e. ; Kuhn, 81 ; Hommel, 172.] 

Xll.a. The Amorous Wife. 

A young man, having married a wife of a pas- 
sionate temperament, told her whenever she could 
not restrain her feelings to let down her hair as a 
signal. It happened that a war broke out, and 
the young man was summoned to join the army. 
But just as he was leaving, his wife let down her 
hair, and the battle was won without him. When 
he was remonstrated with, he replied, "I had an 
enemy at home with whom I had to fight." 

[Occurrences in Barlaam. — Only in Georg. version, 
in the conversation between Theudas and the King. 
Literature. — Hommel in Weisslovitz, 148.] 

Xlll.a. The Youth who had never seen a Woman. 

Z. xiv., L, p. 220, C. 446. 

A king had a son born to him in his old age, 
and wf s warned by his astrologers and physicians 
that his son would be blind if he ever saw the light 
before he was twelve years old. Accordingly the 
King built for him a subterranean chamber, where 
he was kept till he was past the fatal age. There- 


upon he was taken out from his retreat and shown 
all the beauties of the world, gold and jewels, 
and arms, and carriages and horses, and beautiful 
dresses. But seeing some women pass he asked 
what they might be, and was told, " Demons, who 
lead men astray." Afterwards the King asked him 
which of all the beautiful things he had seen he 
desired most ; and the Prince answered, " The 
demons which lead men astray." 

[Occurrences in Barlaam. — In Georg. and Gr. (Z. 
xiv., L. p. 220), but only in Bombay version of the 
Arab, text and not at all in Heb., yet clearly in 
original (see next section). 

Indian Original. — Story of Rshyasrnga in Maha- 
bharata, iii. 9999 ; and Ramayana, I. ix. (cf. Schiefner 
in Mel. Asiat., viii. 112-6). 

Derivates. — R. Basset, Vie d'Abba Yoha/nni, Texte 
ethiopien, trad, franc, Algiers, 1884 (not from Ethiopia 
Barlaam) ; Jacques de Vitry, Exempla, 82 ; Wright, 
Latin Stories, 3, cf. 78 ; Lihro de Enxemplos, 231 ; 
Scala cell, f. 15. b. ; Prompt. Exempl. L. xxiv. ; Boc- 
caccio, Decameron, Day IV. ; Zambrini, Lihro di 

Literature. — Crane, I.e. ; Landau, Quellen, 223 ; 
D'Ancona, Studj, 307; Kuhn, 80.] 

Xlll.b. Peacock and Raven. 

A king showed a foreign merchant his treasures, 
and asked him if there were anything wanting. 
The merchant said, "Only a peacock," which he 
described. So the King sent his vizier with a 
large amount of gold to buy a peacock. But he 
hid the gold, and dyed a raven, and brought it to 

cxxxii APPENDIX 

the King. But shortly afterwards the merchant 
brought two real peacocks as a present to the King. 
The vizier maintained that his was the authentic 
bird. Whereupon the merchant poured hot water 
on the raven, which changed colour at once. The 
same test applied to the peacocks only made them 
more beautiful. So the King honoured the mer- 
chant and punished the vizier. 

The merchant is Buddha, the vizier an idolater, 
the peacock belief in God, the raven heresy. 

^OccvA-rences in Barlaxim. — Only in Bombay text of 
Arab., but certainly Indian (see next section). 

Indian Original. — Baveru Jataka, tr. Morris in 
Folklore Journal, iii. 124. 

Parallel. — ^Esop, Daw in Peacock'' s Feathers (cf. 
Caxton, Ro. ii, 15, and note i. 77 n). 

Literature. — Kuhn, 31 ; Jacobs, I.e. 

Z\)c X?f of Saignt balaam, 

C ^txt folotoeti of ISalaam tfje J^ermgte, 


ALAAM of whome faynt Johan da- 
mafcene made the hyftorye with grete 
dyligence / In whome deuyne grace fo 
wroughte that he conuerted to the feythe 
faynt Jofaphat/ & thenne as al ynde was ful 
of cryften peple & of monkes/ ther aroos 
a puyfTaunt kyng wiche was named anemyr 
whiche made grete perfecucion to criften men 
& fpecyally to monkes / & it happed fo that one 
whiche was frende of the kynge & chyef in his 
paleys / by the Infpiracion of deuyne grace lefte 
the halle ryal/ for to entre in to the ordre of 
monkes / & whan the kyng herd fay that he was 
criften he was wode for angre / and dyd fo feche 
hym thorugh euery deferte til that he was foude 
with grete payne/ and thenne he was brought 
tofore hym / & whan he fawe hym in a vyle cote 
& moche lene for hongre/ whyche was wonte 
to be couerd with precious clothynge and ha- 
bounded in moche richefle & fayd to hym o 
thou fole & out of thy mynde/ why haft thou 



chaunged thyn honour in to vylonye/ & arte 
made the player of children / and he faid to hym 
yf thou wylt here of me refon / put fro the thyn 
enemyes/ thenne the kyng demanded hym who 
were his enemyes/ & he faid to hym yre & 
couetyfe/ for they empeflhe & lette/ that 
trouthe may not be feen/ ne to affaye pru- 
dence/ and equyte To whom the kyng faid/ 
lete it be as thou fayeft / & that other faid / the 
foles defpyfe the thynges that ben/ lyke as they 
were not / and he that hath not the tafte of the 
thynges that ben / he fhall not vfe the fwetnefle 
of them / & may not lerne the trouthe of them 
that been not/ and whan he had Ihewyd many 
thynges of the myfterye of thyncarnacion / the 
kynge fayd to hym yf I had not promyfed the atte 
begynnynge that I fhold put aweye yre fro my 
counceyl I Iholde cafte thy bodye in to the fyre / 
Goo thy weye and flee fro myn eyen that I fee 
the nomore / & that I now dyftreffe the not / 
and anone the man of god wente his waye al 
heuyly / by caufe he had not fuffred marterdom / 
Thus thenne in this mene whyle it happyd 
that the kyng whiche had noo chylde / ther was 
a fayr fone borne of his wyf/ and was callyd 
Jofaphat & the kyng afTemblyd a righte grete 
companye of peple for to make facrefyfe to his 
goddes for the natyuyte of his fone/ & alfo 



aflemblyd Iv allronomyens / of whom he en- 
quyred what Ihold befalle of his fone/ & they 
fayd to hym that he fhold be grete in power & 
in richefles/ & one more wyfe than another 
faid/ fyr this childe that is born Ihal not be in 
thy reygne/ but he llial be in another moche 
better without comparyfon / and know thou that 
I fuppofe that he fhal be of cryften relygyon / 
which thou perfecuteft/ & that fayd not he of 
hym felf/ but he fayd it by Infpyracion of god/ 
And whan the kynge herde that he doubted 
moche and dyd do make without the cyte a 
ry3t noble paleys / and therein fette he hys fone 
for to dwell and abyde/ and fette right fayre 
yongelynges/ and commanded them that they 
fliold not fpeke to hym of deth/ ne of old 
age/ ne of fekenes/ ne of pouerte ne of no 
thynge that may gyue hym caufe of heuynes 
but fay to hym alle thynges that ben ioyous / 
fo that hys minde may be efpryfed with glad- 
nes / & that he thynke on no thynge to come / 
and anone as ony of his fervauntes were feke/ 
The kynge commaunded for to take hem 
aweye/ and fette another hool in hys llede/ 
and commaunded that no mencyon Ihold be 
made to hym of Jhefu crylle/ C In that tyme 
was wyth the kynge a man whych was fecretely 
cryften/ and was chyef emonge alle the noble 



prynces of the kynge/ and as he wente on a 
tyme to hunte wyth the kynge/ he fond a 
pour man lyeng on the grounde/ whiche was 
hurte on the foot of a beeft/ whyche prayed 
that he wold receyue hym / and that he myght 
of hym be holpen by fomme meane / and the 
knyght fayd I fhall receyue the gladly/ but I 
wote not how thou mayfl doo ony proufFyte/ 
And he fayd to hym I am a leche of wordes/ 
& yf ony be hurte by wordes I can wel gyue 
hym a medecyne/ and the knyght fette it at 
noughte all that he fayd / but he receyued hym 
onely for goddes fake/ and helyd hym and 
thenne prynces enuyous and malycyous fawe 
that this prynce was foo grete and gracyous 
with the kynge accufed hym to the kynge/ 
and fayd that he was not onely torned to the 
cryften feythe/ but enforced to withdrawe fro 
hym his royame/ and that he moeuyd and 
folycyted the companye and counceylled theym 
therto / And yf thou wylt know it fayd they / 
thenne calle hym fecretelye/ and fay to hym 
that this lyf is fone doon / and therfore thou 
wylte leue the glorye of the worlde and of thy 
royame and affirme that thou wylt take the 
habyte of monkes/ whome thou haft foo per- 
fecuted by ygnoraunce / and after thou fhalt fee 
what he flial anfwer and whan the kynge had 



doon alle lyke as they had sayd/ the knyghte 
that knewe noo thyng of the treafon beganne 
to wepe and prayfed moche the counceyll of 
the kynge / and remembryd hym of the vanyte 
of the world and counceylled hym to doo it as 
fone as he myght/ and whan the kynge herde 
hym faye foo/ he fuppofed it had been trewe 
that the other had fayd to hym how be it he 
fayd no thynge/ & thenne he vnderftood and 
apperceyued that the kyng had taken his wordes 
in euyl and wente and tolde al this vnto the 
leche of wordes alle by ordre/ and he fayd to 
hym / knowe thou for trouthe that the kynge 
feryth that thou wylte aflaylle his royame/ 
aryfe thou to morowe /and fhaue of thyn heer 
and doo of thy veftements/ and clothe the in 
hayr in manere of a monke/ and goo erlye to 
the kynge / whan he Ihall demaunde the what 
thou meneft / thou Ihalt anfwer / my lord kyng 
I am redy to follow the / For yf the waye by 
whyche thou defyreft to goo be harde yf I be 
with the it Ihal be the lyghter to the / and lyke 
as thou haft had me in profperyte/ fo fhalt 
thou have me in aduerfyte/ I am al redy/ 
wherfore taryeft thou/ and whan he had thys 
doon and fayd by ordre / the kynge was abaffhed 
& repreuyd the falfe men/ and dyd to hym 
more honoure thenne he dyd before/ and after 



thys the kynges fone that was nouryflhed in 
the paleys came to age and grewe and was 
playnely taught in al wyfdom / and he mer- 
uaylled wherfore hys fader had fo enclofed 
hym / and called one of hys feruauntes whiche 
was more famylyer wyth hym fecretely/ & 
demaunded hym of this thynge/ and fayd to 
hym that he was in grete heuynefle that he 
myght not goo oute/ And that his mete ne 
drynke fauerid hym not ne dyd hym no good/ 
and whan hys fader herde this/ he was ful of 
forowe / and anone he lete do make redy horfes 
and ioyeful felawfhyp to accompanye hym in 
fuche wyfe that no thynge dyihonefle fhold 
happen to hym & on a tyme thus as the kynges 
fone wente he mette a mefel and a blynde man / 
and whan he fawe them he was abaflhed / & 
enquyred what them ayled and his feruauntes 
fayd thyfe ben paffyons that comen to men/ 
and he demaunded yf the paffyons comen to 
all men/ and they fayd nay/ Thenne fayd he 
ben they knowen which men ftial fuffre thyfe 
paffyons / without dyffynicion / and they anfwerd 
who is he that may knowe thaduentures of 
men/ and he begun to be moche anguyffhous 
for the Incuflomable thynge herof / & another 
tyme he fonde a man moche aged whiche had 
his chere frounced/ his teth fallen & was al 



croked for age/ wherof he was abafihed and 
faid he defyred to knowe the myracle of thys 
vyfyon / and whan he knewe that thys was by 
caufe he had lyued many yerys / and thenne he 
demaunded what fhold be the ende/ and they 
fayd dethe/ and he fayd/ is then the dethe 
the ende of alle men or of fomme and they 
fayd for certeyn that alle men mufl deye / And 
whan he knewe that alle fholde deye/ he de- 
maunded them in how many yerys that fhold 
happene/ and they fayd in olde age of four 
fcore yere or an hondred/ and after that age 
the dethe followeth/ and thys yonge man re- 
membryd ofte in hys herte thyfe thynges/ and 
was in grete dyfcomforte / but he fhewyd hym 
moche glad tofore his fader/ and he defyred 
moche to be enformed and taughte in thyfe 
thynges / 

C And thenne there was a monke of parfyte 
lyf and good opynyon that dwellyd in the 
deferte of the londe of Sennaar named balaam/ 
And thys monke knewe by the holy ghooft 
what was done aboute this kynges fone/ and 
toke the abbyte of a marchaunte/ and came 
vnto the cytee and fpake to the greteft go- 
uernour of the kynges fone/ and fayd to hym 
I am a marchaunte and haue a precyous ftone 
to selle whyche gyueth fyght to biynde men/ 



& heryng to deef men Hyt maketh the dombe 
to fpeke/ and gyueth wyfedom to fooles/ and 
therfore brynge me to the kynges fone and I 
ftial delyuer it to hym/ To whom he fayd thou 
feemeft a man of prudente nature but thy 
wordes accorde no thynge to wyfedom / Neuer- 
thelefle yf I had knowleche of that ftone / fhewe 
it me/ and yf it be fuche as thou fayeft/ and 
fo proued / thou Ihalt haue right grete honoures 
of the kynges fone / To whome balaam fayd / 
my ftone hath yet fuche vertue/ that he that 
feeth if/ and hath none hool fyght and kepeth 
not entyer chaftyte/ yf he happelye fawe it/ 
the vertue vysyble that he hath he Ihold lefe 
it/ and I that am a phyfycyen fee wel that 
thou haft not thy fyght hoole/ but I vnder- 
ftonde that the kynges fone is chafte and hath 
ryght faire eyen and hoole/ And thenne the 
man fayd yf it be fo ftiewe it not to me / For 
myn eyen ben not hoole/ and am foule of 
fynne/ and balaam fayd thys thynge apper- 
teyneth to the kynges fone/ and therfore brynge 
me to hym anone/ and he anone tolde this to 
the kynges fone / and broughte hym anone in / 
And he receyued hym honourably / and thenne 
balaam fayd to hym/ thou haft doon wel/ for 
thou haft not taken hede of my lytelnefle that 
apperyth withoutforth / but thou haft doon lyke 



vnto a noble kynge / whyche whan he rood in 
his chaar cladde wyth clothes of gold and mette 
wyth poure men whiche were cladde wyth torne 
clothes/ CAnd anone he fprange out of his 
chare/ and fyl doun to their feet and wor- 
Ihypped theym/ and his barons toke thys euyl/ 
and were aferde to repreue hym therof/ but 
they fayd to hys brother how the kynge had 
doon thynge ageynft hys ryal mageftie / and hys 
brother repreuyd hym therof/ and the kynge 
had fuche a cuftome that whan one fhold be de- 
lyuerd to deth/ the kynge fholde fende hys cryar 
wyth hys trompe that was ordeyned therto / 

And on the euen he fente the cryar wyth the 
trompe before hys brothers gate/ and made to 
fowne the trompe and whan the kynges brother 
herde thys/ He was in dyfpayr of fauynge of 
hys lyf / and coude not flepe of all the nyght 
and made hys teftamente/ and on the morne 
erlye he cladde hym in blacke/ and came 
wepynge wyth his wyf and chyldren to the 
kynges paleys / and the kynge made hym come 
tofore hym and fayd to hym / a fool that thou 
arte/ yf thou hafte herde the meflager of thy 
brother/ to whom thou knoweft wel thou haft 
not trefpaced and doubteft foo moche/ How 
ought not I thenne doubte the meffagers of 
our lord/ ageynft whome I haue foo ofte 

fynned / 


fynned / whyche fygnefyed vnto me more clerely 
the dethe thenne the trompe / and fhewed to me 
horrible comyng of the Juge/ &: after this he 
dyd doo make foure cheflys/ and dyd doo couer 
two of them with golde without forthe / and dyd 
doo fylle them wyth boones of deed men and of 
fylthe/ And the other two he dyd doo pytche/ 
And dyd doo fylle theym wyth precyous ftones 
and ryche gemmys/ And after thys the kynge 
dyd doo calle his grete barons by caufe he knew 
wel that they compleyned of hym to his brother / 
and dyd doo fette thyfe foure cheftys tofore 
them and demaunded of them which were molle 
precious and they fayd that the two that were 
gylte/ were mooft of valewe/ Thenne the kyng 
commaunded that they lliold be opened/ and 
anone a grete ftenche yflued out of them and 
the kynge fayd they be lyke them that be 
clothed wyth precious veftementes/ and been 
ful wythinforth of ordure and of fynne and 
after he made opene the other/ and there yflued 
a meruayllous fwete odour/ and after the kyng 
fayd/ thyfe been femblable to the poure men 
that I mette and honoured / for though they be 
clad of foule veflymens / yet fhyne they wythin- 
forth with good odour of good vertues / and ye 
take none hede but to that wythoutforthe / and 
confydere not what is wythin/ and thou haft 



doon to me lyke as that kyng dyd/ For thou 
haft wel receyned me/ and after thys balaam 
beganne to telle to hym a longe fermone of the 
creacyon of the world / and of the Day of Juge- 
mente/ and of the rewarde of good and euyl/ 
and began ftrongelye to blame them that wor- 
(hyp ydolles/ and told to hym of theyr folye 
fuch an exaumple as followeth fayeng/ That 
an archer toke a lytel byrde callyd a nyghtyn- 
gale/ and whan he wold haue flayne thys 
nyghtyngale ther was a voys giuen to the nyght- 
yngale whyche fayd/ O thou man what Ihold 
it auayle the yf thou flee me / Thou mayfte not 
fylle thy bely wyth me / but and yf thou wylt 
lete me goo / I fhal teche the thre wyfedomes / 
that yf thou kepe them dylygentely/ thou 
mayft haue grete prouffite thereby / Thenne he 
was abafflied of his wordes / and promyfed that 
he wold lete hym goo / yf he wold telle hym 
his wyfdomes/ Thenne the byrde fayd/ ftudye 
neuer to take that thynge that thou mayft not 
take/ & of thynge lofte/ whiche may not be 
recoueryd/ forowe neuer therfore/ ne byleue 
neuer thynge that is Incredyble/ Kepe wel 
thyfe thre thynges / and thou fhalte doo wel / 
and thenne he lete the byrde goo as he had 
promyfed/ and thenne the nyghtyngale fleyng 
in the ayer fayd to hym/ alas thou wretched 



man thou hafte had euyl counceyl / for thou haft 
lofte thys day grete trefour/ For I haue in my 
bowellys a precyous margaryte/ whyche is 
gretter than the Q^^Q of an oftrych/ and he 
herde that/ he was moche wroth and forowed 
fore by caufe he had leten hir goo / and en- 
forced hym al that he coude to take hyr ageyne 
fayeng/ Come ageyn to my hows/ and I fhal 
ihew to the al humanyte / and gyue to the alle 
that fhal nede the/ and after fhal lete the goo 
honourably / where as thou wylte Thenne fayd 
the nyghtyngale to hym Now I knowe wel that 
thou art a foole / fore thou haft no prouflyte in 
the wyfedoms that I haue fayd to the/ For 
thou art ryght forowful for me whome thou 
haft lofte/ whyche am Irrecuperable/ and yet 
thou weneft to take me / where thou mayft not 
come fo hyghe as I am / and furthermore where 
thou beleueft to be in me a precyous ftone more 
thenne the Qg%'^ of an oftrytch/ whan alle my 
body may not atteyne to the greteneffe of fuche 
an ^g%Q I And in lyke wyfe be they foolys that 
adoure and truft in ydolles/ for they worfhyp 
that whiche they haue made / and calle theym 
whome they haue made kepars of them/ and 
after he began ne to dyfpute ageynfte the fallace 
of the world and delite and vanyte therof / and 
broughte forth many enfaumples and fayd/ 



They that delyte the delytes corporalJe/ and 
fufFre their fowles deye for hungre/ ben lyke 
to a man that fledde tofore an vnycorn that 
he fhold not deuoure hym/ and in fleyng/ he 
fyl in to a grete pytte / and as he fyl he caughte 
a braunche of a tre with his hande/ and fette 
his feet vpon a flydyng place / and thenne two 
myfe that one whyte/ and that otlier blacke 
whyche wythoute ceflyng gnewe the rote of 
the tree/ 

And had almofte gnawen it a fondre And he 
fawe in the bottom of thys pytte an horryble 
dragon caflynge fyre and had his mouthe opene 
and defyred to deuoure hym / vpon the ilydyng 
place on which his feet flood/ he fawe the 
heedes of foure ferpentes whyche yflueden there / 
and thenne he lefte vp his eyen and fawe a lytel 
hony that henge in the bowes of the tre/ & 
forgat the perylle that he was in / and gaue 
hym al to the fwetenes of that lytel hony / the 
vnycorne is the fygure of deth / which continu- 
elly foloweth man/ and defyreth to take hym/ 
The pytte is the world whiche is ful of al 
wyckedneffe / the tree is the lyf of euery man / 
whiche by the two myfe that ben the day and 
nyght & the houres therof IncefTantly been 
wafted and approched to the cuttyng or gnaw- 
yng a fonder/ the place where the iiij ferpentes 



where is the body ordeyned by the foure ele- 
mentes / by whiche the ioynture of the membrys 
is corupte in bodyes dyftiordynate/ The orrible 
dragon is the mouthe of helle whiche defyreth to 
deuoure al creatures / The fwetenes of the hony 
in the bowes of the tree / is the falfe deceyuable 
dele6lacyon of the world by whiche man is de- 
ceyued / fo that he taketh no hede of the perylle 
that he is in / and yet he fayd that they that loue 
the worlde ben femblable to a man that had 
thre frendes / of whiche he loued the fyrfte as 
moche as hym felf/ and he louyd the fecond 
leffe thenne hym felf/ & louyd the thyrd a 
lytel or nought/ and it happed fo that this 
man was in grete perylle of his lyf/ and was 
fomoned tofore the kynge / thenne he ranne to 
hp fyrfle frende/ and demaunded of hym hys 
helpe/ and tolde to hym how he had alweye 
louyd hym / to whome he fayde / I haue other 
frendes with whom I muft be this day/ and I 
wote not who thou arte/ therfore I may not 
helpe the / yet neuertheleffe I Ihal gyue to the 
two floppes wyth whyche thou mayft couer 
the / and thenne he wente aweye moche forow- 
ful/ and wente to that other frende/ and re- 
quyred alfo his ayde/ and he fayd to hym I 
may not attende to goo wyth the to thys debate/ 
for I haue grete charge/ but I flial yet felau- 



(hyp the vnto the gate of the paleys / & thenne 
I fhal retorne ageyn and doo myn own nedes/ 
and he beyng heuy and as difpayred wente to 
the thyrde frende and fayd to hym / I haue noo 
refon to fpeke to the / ne I haue not loued the 
as I oughte / but I am in trybulacion and with- 
oute frendes/ and praye the that thou helpe me/ 
and that other fayd wyth glad chere/ certes I 
confefle to be thy dere frende/ and haue not 
forgoten the lytel benefayte that thou haft doon 
to me/ and I fhal goo ryght gladly wyth the 
tofore the kynge/ for to fee what fhal be de- 
maunded of the and I fhal praye the kynge for 
the/ The fyrft frende is poffeffyon of richefle 
For whyche man putteth hym in many perylles / 
and whan the dethe cometh he hath no more of 
hit but a cloth for to wynde hym for to be 
buryed/ The fecond frende is hys fones/ hys 
wyf and kynne/ whyche goo wyth hym to hys 
graue/ and anone retorne to entende to theyr 
owne nedes/ The thyrd frende is feythe hope 
and charyte and other good werkys/ Whyche 
we haue doon / that whan we yfTue out of our 
bodyes / they may wel goo tofore vs and praye 
god for vs/ and they may wel delyuer vs fro 
the deuylles our enemyes/ and yet we fayd 
accordyng to thys/ that in a certayn cyte is a 
cuftome/ that they of the cite fhal chefe euery 



yere a ftrauge man and vnknowen for to be 
theyr prynce/ and they fhal gyue hym puyf- 
faunce to doo what fomeuer he wyl/ And 
gouerne the contree wythout ony other confty- 
tucion/ and he beyng thus in grete delyces/ 
and wenyng euer to contynue/ fodeynlye they 
of the cytee fhold aryfe ageynfte hym / and lede 
hym naked thorugh the cyte/ & after fende 
hym in to an yle in exyle/ 

And there he fhold fynde neyther mete ne 
clothe / but fhold be conflreyned to be peryffhed 
for hungre and colde / 

And after that they wolde enhaunce another 
to the kyngdome/ and thus they dyd longe/ 
At the lafte they took one whyche knewe theyr 
cuflome And he fente tofore hym in to that 
yle grete trefoure wythoute nombre duryng alle 
hys yere / 

And whan his yere was accomplyffhed 
and pafTed/ he was put out and put to exyle 
lyke the other/ and where as the other that 
had ben tofore hym peryllhed for colde and 
hongre/ he habounded in grete rycheffes & 
delyces/ and this cyte is the world/ and the 
cytezeyns ben the prynces of derkenefTe/ whiche 
fede vs with falfe deledacyon of the world / and 
thenne the deth cometh whan we take none 
hede/ and that we ben fente in exyle to the 



place of derkenefle / and the rycheffes that ben 
tofore fente/ ben don by the handes of poure 
men/ and whan balaam had parfytely taughte 
the kynges fone/ & wold leue his fader for to 
folowe hym balaam faid to hym yf thou wylte 
doo thus thou {halt be femblable to a yonge 
man / that whan he (hold haue weddyd a noble 
wyf/ he forfoke hyr and fledde aweye/ and 
came in to a place where as he fawe a virgyn 
doughter of an olde poure man that laboured/ 
and preyfed god with hir mowthe / To whome 
he fayd what is that thou doeft doughter that 
arte fo poure & alweye thou thankeft god like 
as thou haddeft receyued grete thynges of hym / 
To whome Ihe fayd / lyke as a lytel medecyne 
ofte delyuereth a grete langour and payne/ 
right fo for to gyue to god thankynges alweye 
of a ly tell yefte / is made a gyuer of grete yeftes 
for the thynges that ben withoutforth ben not 
cures/ but they that be wythin vs ben oures/ 
and therfore I haue receyued grete thynges of 
god/ for he hath made me lyke to his ymage/ 
He hath gyuen to me vnderftondyng/ He hath 
called me to his glorye/ and hath opened to me 
the yate of his kyngdom and therfor for thyfe 
yeftes it is fyttyng to me to gyue hym prayf- 
ynge/ This yonge man feyng hyr prudence 
axed of hir fader to haue hyr to wyf To whome 



the fader fayd thou mayft not haue my doughter/ 
for thou arte the fone of ryche and noble kynne / 
and I am but a poure man / but whan he fore 
defyred hir/ the olde man fayd to hym/ I may 
not gyue hir to the fyth thou wilt lede hir home 
in to the hows of thy fader/ for fhe is myn 
onelye daughter and haue no moo/ And he 
faid/ I fhal dwelle wyth thee and flial accorde 
with the in al thynges/ and thenne he dyd of 
his precyous veftements/ and dyd on hym the 
habyte of an olde man/ and foo dwelling with 
hym toke hir vnto his wyf and whan the olde 
man had longe preuyd hym / he ladde hym in 
to hys chambre/ and fliewyd to hym grete 
plente of rycheffes more than he euer had / and 
gaue to hym al/ & thenne Jofaphat fayd to 
hym/ thys narracyon toucheth me couenably/ 
and I trowe thou haft fayd thys for me/ Now 
faye to me fader how many yere arte thou olde / 
and where conuerfeft thou/ For fro the I wyl 
neuer departe/ To whom balaam fayd/ I haue 
dwellyd xlv yere in the deferte of the londe of 
Sennaar/ To whome Jofaphat fayd/ thou femeft 
better to be Ixx yere / and he fayd yf thou de- 
maundeft alle the yeres of my natyuyte/ thou 
haft wel eftemed them but I accounte not the 
nombre of my lyf / them fpecyally that I haue 
dyfpended in the vanytee of the world/ For I 



was thenne dede toward god and I nombre not 
the yerys of dethe / wyth the yerys of lyf / and 
whan Jofaphat wold haue folowed hym in to 
deferte balaam fayd to hym/ yf thou do fo/ 
I llial not haue thy companye / and I Ihial be 
thenne than6tor of perfecucyon to my brethern / 
but whan thou feeft tyme couenable / thou ftialt 
come to me/ and thenne balaam baptyfed the 
kynges fone/ and enformed hym wel in the 
feythe/ and after retorned in to his celle/ and a 
lytel whyle after the kynge herde faye that hys 
fone was cryftened/ wherfore he was moche 
forowful / and one that was his frende named 
Arachys recomfortyng hym fayd/ Syr kynge I 
knowe right well an olde hermyte that re- 
fembleth moche balaam / and he is of our fe6te / 
He ihal fayne hym as he were balaam / & fhal 
defFende fyrfte the feyth of cryften men/ and 
after dial leue and retorne fro it / and thus your 
fone fhal retorne to you / and thenne the kynge 
wente in to deferte as it were to feche balaam 
and toke thys hermyte and fayned that he had 
taken balaam / and whan the kynges fone herde 
that balaam was taken he wepte bytterlye / but 
afterwarde he knewe by reuelacyon deuyne that 
it was not he / C Thenne the kynge wente to 
his fone and fayd to hym thou haft put me in 
grete heuynefTe/ thou haft dyfhonoured myn 



olde age/ thou hall derked the light of myn 
eyen/ fone why haft thou doon fo/ thou haft 
forfaken the honour of my goddes and he an- 
fwerd to hym I haue fledde the derkeneffe/ and 
am comen to the lyght/ I haue fledde errour 
& knowe trouthe / and therfore trauaylle the for 
nought/ for thou mayft neuer wythdrawe me 
fro Jhefu cryfte/ For lyke as it is Impoflyble 
to the to touche the heuen wyth thy honde/ 
or for to drye the grete fee/ fo is it to the 
for to chaunge me/ Thenne the fader fayd/ 
who is caufe herof/ but I my felf/ that fo 
gloryoufly haue to nouryflhed the/ that neuer 
fader nouriffhed more hys fone/ For whyche 
caufe thyn euyl wyll hath made the wood 
ageynft me / and it is wel ryght / For the 
aftronomyens in thy natyuyte fayd / that thou 
Iholdeft be proude and dyihobedyente to thy 
parentes/ but and thou now wylte not obeye 
me/ thou ftialte nomore be my fone/ and I 
ftial be thyn enemye for a fader/ and fhal do 
to the that I neuer dyd to myn enemyes/ To 
whome Jofaphat fayd / fader wherfore arte thou 
angry/ by caufe I am made a partyner of 
good thynges / what fader was euer forowful 
in the profperyte of hys fone/ I Ihal nomore 
calle the fader/ but and yf thou be contrarye 
to me I ftial flee the as a ferpente / 



Thenne the kynge departed from hym in 
grete angre / and fayd to arache his frende alle 
the hardnes of his fone and he counceylled the 
kynge that he {hold gyue hym noo fliarpe 
wordes/ for a chylde is better reformed by 
fayr and fwete wordes / The day folowyng the 
kynge came to his fone & beganne to clyppe 
enbrace and kyffe hym/ and fayd to hym my 
ryght fwete fone honoure thou myn olde age/ 
fone drede thy fader/ knoweft thou not wel 
that it is good to obeye thy fader & make hym 
glad/ and for to doo contrarye it is fynne/ and 
they that angre them fynne euyl/ to whome 
Jofaphat fayd there is tyme to loue/ and tyme 
to hate/ tyme of pees/ and tyme of bataylle/ 
and we ought in no wyfe loue them / ne obeye 
to them that wold put vs aweye fro god be 
it fader or moder/ 

And whan hys fader fawe his fledfaftneffe / 
he fayd to hym/ fythe I fee thy folye and 
wylte not obeye to me/ Come and we Ihal 
knowe the trouth/ For balaam whiche hath 
deceyiied the is bounden in my pryfon/ and 
lete vs aflemble our peple wyth balaam / and 
I {hal fende for alle the galylees/ that they 
may faufly come wythout drede and dyfpute/ 
and yf that ye with yon balaam ouercome vs / 
we ihal byleue and obeye you/ and yf we 



ouercome you ye ftial confente to vs/ and thys 
plefyd wel to we kynge/ and to Jofaphat/ 
and whan they had ordeyned that he that 
named hym Balaam fhold fyrfte defFende the 
feythe of cryfte/ And fufFre hym after to be 
ouercomen and foo were all affemblyd / Thenne 
Jofaphat torned hym toward nachor whyche 
fayned hym to be balaam/ and fayd balaam 
thou knowell wel how thou hafte taughte 
me/ and yf thou deffende the feyth that I 
haue lerned of the/ I flial abyde in thy doc- 
tryne to the ende of my lyf / and yf thou be 
ouercomen I ihal auenge me anone on the myn 
Iniurye/ and Ihall plucke out the tonge out 
of thyn heed wyth myn handes / & gyue it to 
dogges to thende that thou be not fo hardy 
to put a kynges fone in errour/ 

And whan nachor herde that he was in grete 
fere and fa we wel that yf he fayd contrarye he 
were but dede/ and that he was taken in his 
owne fnare / and thenne he aduyfed that it were 
better to take and holde wyth the fone thenne 
wyth the fader/ For to efchewe the perylle of 
deth/ For the kynge had fayd to hym tofore 
them all / that he {hold deffende the feythe 
hardelye & without drede/ thenne one of the 
mayfters fayd to hym thou arte balaam / whiche 
haft deceyued the fone of the kynge/ and he 



fayd I am Balaam whyche haue not put the 
kynges fone in ony errour / but I haue broughte 
hym out of errour/ and thenne the mayfter 
fayd to hym / right noble and mearuyllous men 
haue worfliypped our goddes/ how dareft thou 
thenne adreffe the ageynft them/ and he an- 
fwered/ they of caldee/ of egypte/ and of 
grece haue erryd and fayden that the creatures 
were goddes/ & the chaldees fuppofeden that 
the elementes had ben goddes whiche were 
created to the prouffyte of men / and the 
grekes fuppofed that curfyd men and tyrauntes 
had be goddes/ as faturne/ whom they fayd 
ete his fone/ and lubyter whiche as they fay 
gheldyd his fader & threwe his membrys in to 
the fee/ wherof grewe venus/ and lubyter to 
be kynge of the other goddes/ by caufe he 
tranfformed ofte hym felf in lykeneffe of a 
beeft/ for to accomplyflhe his aduoultrye/ and 
alfo they faye that venus is goddeife of aduoul- 
trye/ and fomtyme mars is hyr hufbond/ and 
fomtyme adonydes/ The egypcyens worftiyppe 
the beeftys/ that is to wete a Iheep/ a calfe/ 
a fwyne/ or fuche other/ and the cryften men 
worfhyppe the fone of the ryght hyghe kynge/ 
that defcended fro heuen and toke nature hu- 
mayne / 

And thenne nachor beganne clerelye to def- 



fende the lawe of cryften men/ & garnyffhed 
hym wyth many refons/ fo that the mayfters 
were al abaffhed and wyfte not what to anfwere/ 
and thenne Jofaphat had grete ioye of that/ 
whiche our lord had deffended the trouthe/ 
by hym that was enemye of trouthe/ and 
thenne the kynge was ful of wodeneffe/ and 
commaunded that the counceyl {hold departe/ 
lyke as he wold haue tretyd ageyn on the 
morne the fame fayte/ Thenne Jofaphat fayd 
to his fader lete my mayfter be wyth me thys 
nyght/ to the ende that we may make our 
collacion to gyder/ for to make to morowe 
our anfweres / and thou fhalt lede thy mayilers 
wyth the / and fhal take counceyl wyth them / 
& yf thou lede my mayfter wyth the/ thou 
doeft me no ryghte/ wherfore he graunted to 
hym nachor by caufe he hoped that he fliold 
deceyue hym/ and whan the kynges fone was 
comen to his chambre/ and nachor with hym/ 
Jofaphat fayd to nachor/ Ne weneft thou not 
that I knowe the/ I wote wel that thou arte 
not balaam/ but thou arte nachor the aftro- 
nomyen/ and Jofaphat prechyd thenne to hym 
the waye of helthe/ and conuertyd hym to 
the feythe/ and on the morne fente hym in 
to deferte / and there was baptyfed / and ledde 
the lyf of an hermyte/ Thenne there was an 



enchauntour named theodas/ whan he herde 
of this thynge/ he came to the kyng and fayd 
that he (hold make his fone retorne and byleue 
in hys goddes / 

And the kyng faid to hym yf thou do fo/ 
I flial make to the an ymage of golde and 
oflFre facrefyfes therto/ lyke as to my goddes/ 
and he fayd take aweye al them that ben about 
thy fone and put to hym fayre wymmen and 
wel adourned/ and commaunde them alle waye 
to abyde by hym/ and after I fhal fende a 
wycked fpyryte that Ihal enflamme hym to 
luxurye/ and there is noo thynge that may fo 
fone deceyue the yonge men/ as the beaulte 
of wymmen/ and he fayd yet more/ there 
was a kynge whyche had wyth grete payne a 
fone/ & the wyfe mayfters fayden that yf he 
fawe fonne or mone wythin ten yere / he fhold 
lofe the fyghte of his eyen / 

Thenne hit was ordeyned that thys chylde 
fhold be nourifllied wythin a pytte made in 
a grete rocke / and whan the ten yere were 
paflyd/ The kynge commaunded that hys fone 
fhold be brought forth and that all thynges 
fhold be broughte tofore hym by caufe he 
fhold knowe the names and the thynges/ and 
thenne they brought tofore hym Jewelles/ 
horfes and beeflys of al names/ and alfo golde/ 



fy luer precyous ftones / & all other thynges and 
whan he had demauded the names of eueiy 
thynge / and that the mynyftres had tolde hym / 
he fette nought therby/ and whan his fader 
faw that he retched not of fuche thynges / 
thene the kynge made to be broughte tofore 
hym wymmen quayntely arayed/ and he de- 
maunded what they were/ For they wold not 
foo lyghtly telle hym / wherof he was anoyed / 
and after the mayfler fquyer of the kyng fayd 
iapyng that they were deuylles that deceyue 
men / Thenne the kynge demaunded hym what 
he lyeueft had of al that he had feen / and he 
anfweryd fader my foule coueyteth noo thynge 
fo moche as the deuylles that deceyue men/ 
and therfore I fuppofe that none other thynge 
(hal furmounte thy fone but wymmen whiche 
moeue men alle waye to lecherye/ thenne the 
kynge put out alle his mynyftres and fette 
therin to be about his fone ri3t noble & fayre 
maydens/ whyche alweye hym admonefted to 
playe/ and there were none other that myght 
fpeke ne feme hym/ and anone the enchaun- 
tour fent to hym the deuyl for to enflame 
hym whiche brennyd the yonge man wythin- 
forth / & the maydens wythoutforth / and whan 
he felte hym foo ftrongelye trauaylled he was 
moche angry/ and recommaunded hym felf 



alle to god / and he receyued deuyne comforte / 
in fuche wyfe that al temptacyon departed from 
hym/ & after this that the kynge fawe that 
the deuyl had don no thynge he fente to hym 
a fayre mayden a kynges doughter whyche 
was faderles/ To whome this man of god 
prechyd and Ihe anfwerd yf thou wylte faue 
me/ and take me aweye fro worfliyppyng of 
thydolles/ conioyne the vnto me by couplyng 
of maryage/ for the patryarkes/ prophetes/ and 
peter the appoflle had wyues/ and he fayd to 
hir/ woman thyfe wordes fayeft thou now for 
nought/ It apperteyneth wel to cryften men 
to wedde wyues/ but not to them that haue 
promyfed to our lord to kepe vyrgynyte / 

And fhe fayd to ^ hym/ now be it as thou 
wylte/ but yf thou wylte faue my fowle/ 
graunte to me a lytel requefte/ lye wyth me 
onelye this nyght and I promyfe to the that 
to morne I fhal be made cryften/ For as ye 
fay the aungels have more ioye in heuen of 
one fynnar doyng penaunce/ thenne on many 
other/ There is grete guerdon due to hym that 
doth penaunce/ & conuerteth hym/ therfore 
graunte to me onely thys requefte/ and foo 
thou ftialte faue me/ and thenne fhe began 
ftrongely to affayle the toure of hys confcience / 
Thenne the deuyl fayd to his felowes / loo fee 



how this mayde hath ftrongely put forth that 
we my3t not moeue/ Come thenne and lete 
vs knocke flrongely ageynft hym fyth we fynde 
now tyme couenable / 

And whan the holy yonge man fa we thys 
thynge/ and that he was in that caytyfnes/ 
That the couetyfe of hys fleffhe admonefted 
hym to fynne / 

And alfo that he defyred the fauacyon of 
the mayde/ by entyfyng of the deuyl that 
moeuyd hym / he thenne put hym felf to prayer 
in wepynge / and there fyl a llepe / and fawe 
by a vyfyon that he was broughte in to a 
medowe arayed wyth fayr floures / there where 
the leuys of the trees demened a fwete founde/ 
whiche came by a wynde agreable/ and therout 
yflued a merueyllous odour/ and the fruyte was 
right fayre to fee/ and right dele6table of tafte/ 
and there were fetes of golde and fyluer and 
precyous ftones / and the beddes were noble 
and precyoufly adurned/ and ryght clere water 
ranne there by / and after that he entred in to a 
cyte of which the walles were of fyne golde / and 
fhone by meruayllous clerenefle/ and fawe in 
the ayer fomme that fange a fonge/ that neuer 
eer of mortal man herde lyke/ and it was fayd 
this is the place of blelfyd fayntes / and as they 
wolde haue had hym thens/ he prayed them that 



they wold lete hym dwelle there and they fayd 
to hym / thou flialte yet hereafter come hyther 
wyth grete trauayle yf thou mayfl: lufFre/ and 
after they ledde hym in to a ryght horryble 
place ful of al fylthe and ftenche / and fayd to 
hym this is the place of wycked peple/ and 
whan he awoke hym femed that the beaute of 
that damoyfel was more foull and ftynkyng 
thenne alle the other ordure/ and thenne the 
wycked fpyrytes came ageyn to theodafe/ and 
he thenne blamyd them / to whome they fayd 
we ranne vpon hym tofore he marked wyth 
the fygne of the crofle / & troubled hym llronge- 
lye and whan he was garnyfllied with the fygne 
of the crofle/ he perfecuted vs by grete force/ 
Thenne theodafe came to hym with the kynge 
and had hoped that he /hold haue peruerted 
hym/ But this enchauntour was taken of hym/ 
whome he fuppofed to haue taken and was 
conuerted and receyued baptefme/ and lyued 
after an holy lyf and thenne the kynge was 
al defpayred/ and by counceyl of his frendes 
he delyuered to hym halfe his royame/ & 
how be it that Jofaphat defyred wyth alle his 
thoughte the deferte/ yet for to encrece the 
feythe he receyued the royame for a certeyn 
tyme/ and maad chirches and reyfed crofles 
and conuerted moche people of his royame to 



the fayth of Jhefu cryfte/ and atte laft the 
fader confented to the refons & predycacions 
of his fone and byleuyd on the feythe of Jhefu 
cryft/ & receyued baptefme/ and lefte his 
royame hole to his fone / & entended to werkes 
of penaunce/ and after fynyffhed hys lyf laud- 
ably/ and Jofaphat ofte warned the kyng 
barachye that he wolde goo in to deferte/ 
but he was reteyned of the peple longe tyme / 
but atte lafte he fledde aweye in to deferte/ 
and as he wente in a deferte/ he gafe to a 
pour man his habyte ryal / and abode in a ryght 
pour gowne/ & the deuyl made to hym many 
affaultes/ for fomtyme he ranne vpon hym 
wyth a fwerde drawen / and menaced to fmyte 
yf he lefte not the deferte/ and another tyme 
he apperyd to hym in the forme of a wylde 
beeft/ & fomed & ranne on hym as he wold 
haue deuoured hym / and thenne Jofaphat fayd / 
Our Lord is myn helpar/ I doubte no thynge 
that man may do to me/ and thus Jofaphat 
was two yere vagaunte & erryd in deferte / and 
coude not fynde balaam and at the lafte he 
fonde a caue in the erthe and knockyd at the 
dore & fayd/ Fader bleffe me/ and anone ba- 
laam herde the voys of hym/ and roos vp & 
wente out/ and thenne eche kyffed other and 
enbraced ftraytelye/ and were glad of their 

alfemblyng / 


aflemblyng/ and after Jofaphat recounted to 
balaam al thyfe thynges that were happenyd / 

And he rendryd & gaue thankynges to god 
therfore/ and Jofaphat dwelled there many 
yeres in grete and meruayllous penaunce ful 
of vertues / and whan balaam had accomplyffhed 
hys dayes/ he reftyd in pees aboute the yere 
of our lord foure hondred & four fcore Jofaphat 
lefte his royame the xxv yere of his age/ and 
ledde the lyf of an hermyte fyue and thyrty 
yere / and thenne reftyd in pees ful of vertues / 
and was buryed by the body of balaam / and 
whan the kyngs barachyas herde of thys thynge 
he came vnto that fame place with a grete 
companye / and toke the bodyes and bare them 
wyth moche grete honoure in to hys cytee where 
god hath fhewed niany fayre myracles at the 
tombe of thyfe two precyous bodyes/ 

C 5EJug mtJetfi ^i ftors of balaam 
BtttJ Jfofapl^at 



Heathen's Converfion ; 

Shewing the Whole 



Prince Jehosaphat, 

The SON of 



jJOji. Jjjfc. Jjifc. .^Ifc .SIfc- -SI*!. -Sfe -Slfc. Jjlfc. jMfc Jjlfc-Ste 


How he was converted and made a Chriilian, which 
was the converfion of his Father and the whole Land. 

By a Reverend DIVINE. 

mi^^ mi^i ^^n^^ f^-H/>^-i m j^j ^m m\ mm m ^^j f^# 


Printed in the Year 1783. 



Set forth in the 

Heathens Conversion. 

King Avenerio'5 Perfecution over the Chrijlian 
Faith J he prayeth to his Idols that his Queen 
might bear a Child. 

Which may be fung to the tane, Aim not 
too high. 

/^OOD Chriftian people, now be pleas'd to 
^-^ mind. 

This pious book, and in it foon you'll find. 
Divine records fliow plainly to our view. 
What miracles our gracious God can do. 

Full well we know this is the heathens cafe, 
Tho' they have not receiv'd the light of grace : 
By nature the fun, moon, and ftars obey. 
Thus every land fome kind of homage pay. 


( 38 ) 

Thus by degrees God calls them home we know. 
And mighty miracles does daily {how. 
To make his righteous gofpel fpread and fhine. 
That all may know his power mofl divine. 

Then let the ignorant atheift blufh for Ihame, 
And never more abufe God's holy name. 
For God created all things, great and fmall. 
And man to be chief ruler over all. 

The caufe of this my treating I'll explain. 
In foreign lands a tyrant KING did reign -, 
A perfecutor of the chriftian faith. 
As many good and learned writers faith. 

His Queen was young and beautiful alfo. 
In worldly pleafures they did overflow ; 
One thing which moft their comforts did deftroy. 
They had no iffue that could it enjoy. 

This King, who in vain idols did believe. 
Sent for his priefts to pray fhe might conceive 3 
Pray to our Gods, faid he, that we may have, 
A child for that is all I need to crave. 

For with all forts of plenty I am bleil. 
What e'er my heart can wifh to be poffeft : 
A child will crown my days with pleafure then. 
And I fhould be the happieft of all men. 

They all replied, we will your will obey, 
And for this thing we to our Gods will pray : 
The King faid, if fuch bleflings come to me. 
Then you Ihall furely well rewarded be. 


( 39 ) 

Vain ignorant man God's laws fo difobey'd. 
To think that idols, which by hands are made. 
Have power J noj fuch things let us defy. 
And put our faith and truft in God mod high. 

Who is the righteous living God of might. 
Nothing is hidden from his blefled fight. 
He knows man's thoughts, and fees his aftions 

And nothing can be done without his will. 


The Queen proving with Child, he rewarded his 
Idol Priejls, andfentfor the Wife Men. 

npHUS in a vain prefumptuous manner, they. 

Did often to their golden idols pray. 
According to the order of their King, 
Which was indeed a bold prefumptuous thing. 

From heathen priefts no virtue could proceed. 
But by the work of God it was decreed. 
His fond defire Ihould fulfilled be. 
That he a mighty miracle Ihould fee. 

According to the will of God above. 
His Queen conceived, and with child did 

Then did the King joy through the land proclaim. 
And thought his idol Gods had caus'd the fame. 


( 40 ) 

Unto his heathen priefts great gifts he fent. 
Saying, my days are crowned with fweet content: 
My Queen has now conceived, and I fhall have. 
The thing which I fo long did wilh and crave. 

Five of the wifeft men that could be found. 
In King Avenerio's kingdom round. 
He fent for them and did a feafl: prepare. 
Three months before her time expired were. 

Unto thefe wife philofophers he faid. 
My Queen in three months will be brought to 

bed J 
'Till then, you in my palace fhall remain. 
That I may know what planet then will reign. 


The queen being delivered of JEHOSAPHAT, 
the Wife Men tell the Signification of the 
Child's Planet. 

A T laft Ihe was delivered of a fon. 

Which joyful tidings thro' the kingdom 
The fweeteft child that ever eyes beheld. 
With joy and gladnefs then the King was 
Jehosaphat this prince was nam'd we find : 
The wife men were diflurbed in their minds. 


( 41 ) 

For by the rule of planets they did fee. 

Such things as would not with the King agree. 

Four of them faid, what fhall we do alas ! 
For thro' this child ftrange things will come to 

pafs J 
Therefore we muft diffemble with our King, 
And tell him, 'twill be well in every thing. 

Now when the wife men came in the King's 
view ! 
He faid, what have you found, pray tell me true ? 
Four of them faid, fortune has on you fmil'd. 
For you are blefl with a fweet hopeful child. 

In every thing he will obey your will. 
And crown your days with joy and comfort ftill : 
To hear thefe things the King was pleafed in 

mind 5 
The wifeft man he fear'd, and ftaid behind. 

Then from the King thefe wife men did 
depart : 
He for the other fent, and faid, thou art 
The wifeft man, and therefore tell thou me. 
What you concerning of my child did fee ? 

I am afraid to tell you, he reply'd, 
Becaufe, O King ! you'll be dilfatisfied j 
Let it be good, or ill, fpeak, faid the King, 
For thee I will believe in every thing. 

He faid, O King ! thofe men did flatter you -, 
What they have faid, indeed it is not true : 


( 4= ) 

For in that fatal hour I did lee. 

Your child is born a chriftian for to be. 

Up firmly for the chriftian faith he'll (land. 
And all your priefls he'll banifh from the land j 
Your golden Gods he clearly will deflroy ; 
Your days are mix'd with grief inftead of joy. 

Hearing thefe words the King to weeping fell. 
Saying, this is fad news which now you tell. 
My joys are turn'd to forrow, grief and woe. 
Then how I may prevent it, let me know. 

The wife philofopher then faid, behold. 
Your child mull fuck till three years old. 
And build a famous palace in that fpace. 
That he may be fecured in that place. 

To wait on him, get twelve young virgins fair. 
And fome great knight to tutor him with care. 
The word of God or Chrift ne'er let him hear. 
And thus let him be kept for fifteen years. 

Should one of them fall fick, or chance to die. 
Be fure you get another fpeedily ; 
No death or ficknefs let him e'er perceive. 
But all for ever lives, make him believe. 

Then take him forth all pleafures for to fee. 
And to fome princefs let him wedded be : 
By this contrivance I'll affure you true. 
Your child will be a comfort unto you. 


( 43 ) 


King AVENERIO's contrivance to have his fon 
brought up in the Heathen Way, which 
prevailed not. 

'X'HEN as the wife philofopher had faid, 

He caufed a fumptuous palace to be made. 
And foon he got twelve virgins as we hear. 
All aged from thirteen unto twenty years. 

He put in truft Lionone called by name. 
Who was a noble baron of great fame. 
That he might be his tutor, and his guide. 
To learn him well, and train him up in pride. 

He was to be confined for fifteen years. 
Commanding that God's word he might not hear. 
Nor any talk of holy things divine ; 
But mark how God did baulk the King's delign. 

His father came oft times to fee him there. 

To whom the tutor did this declare. 

Your fon he doth increafe in learning fo. 
He'll be a wife philofopher I know. 

Then faid the King, the wife man told to me. 
My child was born a chriflian for to be j 
That falfe philofopher I need not mind. 
For now I Ihall much joy and comfort find. 

When 1 2 long years were gone and pafl behold. 
The prince was then about fifteen years old ; 


( 44 ) 

He lov'd one virgin more than all the reft, 
To whom Jehofaphat his mind expreft. 

Why am I fo confined here, I pray ? 
I long to fee my father's palace gay. 
And walk abroad to take the air likewife. 
Why are thefe things thus hidden from my eyes. 

Now if you will reveal the truth to me. 
Thou ever ftialt high in my favour be ; 
But if thou doft refufe, I'll fcorn thee quite. 
And never will endure thee in my light. 

The damfel faid, then as her eyes did flow. 
Your father will put me to death I know. 
If I fhould tell ; and if I it refufe. 
Then I for ever muft your favour lofe. 

Jehofaphat faid, fpeak, be not afraid ; 
So then fhe told him what the wife men faidj 
And did unto the prince the caufe relate. 
Why he was kept confined at this rate. 

Should you go forth, the city for to fee. 
Your heart with mirth will ravifh'd be. 
To view the court, and famous buildings ftore. 
This fet the prince a longing more and more. 

And faid to Lionone, one thing I crave. 
To walk abroad I may fome freedom have : 
The knight went to the King, and got him leave. 
But, O the King in floods of tears did grieve. 

The King fet forth a proclamation then, 
That blind and lame, and all deformed men. 


( 45 ) 

Should keep up clofe when as the prince pall 

But llrong and lufty (hould appear in view. 

The prince was mounted on a lofty fteed. 
Great lords and barons met him there indeed. 
To 'commodate him through the city fair. 
While at each window mulic play'd moft rare. 

The people were amaz'd at this fine fight, 
Likewife the prince was fiU'd with great delight j 
Then home he went, and to the damfel told. 
What pleafant fights that day he did behold. 

Mofl royal prince, the damfel then did fay. 
Did you but fee the fields and gardens gay. 
Where birds do fing, and fragrant flowers grow, 
You would be much more ravifhed I know. 

Once more the tutor did the King acquaint. 
The fecond time to give his fon content : 
Setting his proclamation forth again. 
So out they went with all their noble train. 

The fields and gardens gave him great delight. 
And finging birds his heart did much invite ; 
He was well pleas'd to view the parks mofl: 

When evening come, for home they did repair. 

But now to drive ofl^all thefe pleafures gay. 
They met with two objefts by the way : 
One blind, the other full of leprofy. 
Who for the fake of God crav'd charity. 


( 46 ) 

The prince unto his tutor then did fay. 
What is the meaning, tell me now I pray. 
Of thefe ftrange creatures ? flraight the knight 

They are two Men full of infirmities. 

For by the caufe of fin 'tis God's decree. 
Some men are born afflided for to be j 
As blind or lame, fuch things the Lord doth 

That all may praife his name who are not fo. 

Jehofaphat then faid. If this be true. 
The like as well may fall on me or you. 
The Knight then faid God knows beft, fo home 

they went, 
Jehofaphat was fiU'd with difcontent. 

The Tutor then unto the King made known. 
Your fon is very melancholy grown. 
Some fport and pafl;ime therefore let him fee. 
In hopes his drooping heart may cheered be. 

The King gave leave, the tutor once more 
With many lords and barons of great fame. 
To ride a hunting then they took their way. 
In mirth they fpent a pleafant fummer's day. 

But riding home, out of a cell appears 
A man whofe age was near an hundred years. 
Bald-headed, toothlefs, hollo w-ey'd withal. 
The palfy fhook him, he could hardly crawl ; 


( 47 ) 

Jehofaphat then faid. Pray let me know 
What thing is this fo ftrange and feems to go ? 
The Knight faid 'tis a man with age quite fpent. 

Ready to die, this made the prince relent. 

Prince.) When muft he die, O tell me now I 

Tutor.) No one but God can tell his dying day. 
Pr.) What muft be done with him when he is 

dead ? 
Tu.) Then under earth his body muft be laid. 

Then said the prince. If that it muft be fo. 
This is a vain deceitful world I know. 
The pleafures of it I'll no longer prize. 
But have the thoughts of death before mine eyes. 

Now when the tutor had thefe things then told. 
The King did weep, and faid, my heart feems cold. 
My child is come to ruin now, alas ! 
I fear the wife man's words will come to pafs. 


Prince Jehofaphat' s Converjion to the Chrijlian 
Faith and DoSrine. 

T) ARLAAM, a chriftian hermit, who had fpent 
^-^ Long time in defert places, to him God fent 
An angel, who unto the hermit faith. 
Go teach Jehofaphat the chriftian faith. 


( 48 ) 

Whate'er thou fayeft he fliall be rul'd by thee 3 
For God hath chofe Jehofaphat to be 
His faithful fervant, guiltlefs of offence, 
Tho' kept fo long in wicked ignorance. 

Then Barlaam came unto the palace brave. 
To whom the porter faid, what would you have ? 
Said Barlaam, I muft fpeak with your great 

The man at firfl deny'd him entrance. 

Barlaam.) I am a merchant, now I tell to thee. 
And bring a precious jewel here with me. 
All other things the fame it doth outvie. 
For he who keeps the fame fhall never die. 

The virtue of this jewel is fo pure. 
All manner of diftempers it will cure : 
If he were blind 'twould give him perfe6t light. 
If he were lame 'twould make him walk upright. 

Porter.) Pray let me fee this jewel if you can ? 
Barlaam.) I dare not fhow it to a married man. 
For none muft fee it but a virgin pure. 
Your prince a virgin is I can affure. 

The porter knowing what he faid was true. 
Said, I will go and tell the prince of you : 
He went and told the prince, who foon was free 
He to his chamber fliould admitted be. 

When Barlaam came the prince faid Let me 
The precious jewel you have brought for me. 


( 49 ) 

Barlaam.) You cannot fee it with an outward 

But muft behold it with an inward light. 

Then Prince Jehofaphat did mildly fay. 
What do you mean by inward light I pray? 
Barlaam the hermit made this answer then. 
This jewel is the Saviour of all men. 

The gods you ferve are devils I you tell. 
And leading you the ready way to hell j 
There's none to ferve but one true God of 

Hearken to me and I will teach you right. 

God made the heavens, Lucifer firft fell 
With many more down to the pit of hell. 
For pride, and fo the devils all became 
To be tormented in a burning flame. 

Thofe having fell, the heavens were left bare. 
So by that means the worlds created were j 
In fix days fpace God did this work fulfil. 
And make all things according to his will : 

Man being made well-pleafing in his fight. 
The devil was enrag'd with wrath and fpight, 
'Caufe he himfelf can in no pleafure dwell. 
He fain would draw all fouls to him in hell. 

The devil's fnare firfi: caufed Adam's fall. 
Which was the caufe mankind have finned all. 
And fo the world became filthy and vain. 
But by Chrifl:'s death it was reftor'd again. 



( so ) 

When Barlaam had explain'd the fcripture 
The prince increas'd in learning more and more : 
He faid, I will believe and bear in mind 
My Chrill that dy'd for me and all mankind. 

O teach me how to ferve my God moft pure. 
That after death my foul may be fecure. 
With God & Chrift who dwells with the Moft 

Barlaam in parable made this reply : 

To a great lord two coffins once were brought. 
One of them very fine and richly wrought 
With gold, the other rotten were. 
He chofe that coffin which was wrought fo rare : 

The gaudy coffin being open'd wide, 
A parcel of old rotten bones he fpy'd j 
The rotten coffin then burft open were. 
Where he beheld choice pearls and di'monds 

He blulht for Ihame and was converted ftraight. 
Crying, O Lord, my fins are very great ; 
The glory of the earth is vain I fee. 
The pooreft of this earth will happieft be. 

The prince faid I will worldly pleafure flight. 
And in the poor will place my whole delight 5 
Henceforth I will defy all pomp and pride, 
I thank you brother, Jefus be my guide. 


( 51 ) 


King Avenerios Malice againji his Son 
Jehofaphat for being a Chrijiian. 

T lONONE finding what would come to pafs, 
"^^ He fmote upon his breaft, and cry'd alas 
What anfwer fhall I make my fovereign lord ? 
Death without mercy will be my reward. 

Then he a rope about his neck did fling. 
And in this manner went unto the king. 
Then kneeling down he made a courteous 

The king reply'd, fir, what's the matter now ? 

What, art thou mad, Lionone, tell me true. 
That you appear fo ftrangely in my view ? 
Lionone trembled ; and made this reply, 
O hang me up, for I delerve to die. 

I do deferve no mercy for my fliare, 
You left your fon under my charge and care. 
To tutor him the way that is mofl: right, 
But now, alas ! your fon is turned quite. 

For by a falfe deceitful man's advice. 
Who faid he had a jewel of great price : 
By his fly ways I fell into a fnare j 
He's made your fon a chriftian I declare. 

He in the chriflian faith is grown fo bold. 
That our religion he in fcorn doth hold : 


( 52 ) 

He rails againft our Gods at a vile rate. 
And fays they fliall be burned at his gate. 

Rife up Lionone, then replied the King, 
I will not execute you for this thing : 
Thou may'ft be fure no harm (hall come to 

But on my fon revenged 1 vi^ill be. 

If that he will not turn to us again. 
As I'm King, I'll caufe him to be flain : 
I'd better kill him though he is my child. 
Than let my kingdom utterly be fpoil'd. 

So fending for his fon thefe words he faid. 
Haft thou my laws and counfel difobey'd ? 
If it be true what I have heard of thee. 
Then by my honour thou deftroy'd fhalt be. 

I have been told thou art a chriftian turn'd. 
If it be fo, 'tis fit thou fhould'ft be burn'd : 
Thou ftialt not live to overcome my land. 
The truth of this now let me underftand. 

Father I am a chriftian to be plain. 
That holy faith I ever will maintain : 
To fuffer death I will be very free. 
For my dear Chrift that Ihed his blood for me. 

Then did he give his fon fad kicks and blows, 
'Till blood gufht out both from his mouth and 

I thank you, Father, then replied the fon. 
It is God's will for me, this fhould be done. 


( 53 ) 

My liiviour Chrift with many ftripes was beat. 
And to the crofs they nail'd his hands and feet. 
To bear your blows with patience I am free, 
I cannot bear what Chrift has bore for me. 

To find out Barlaam then we underftand. 
He fent a proclamation through the land j 
That man by whom this hermit could be found. 
Should have for his reward a hundred pound. 

Long time they fought him, but 'twas in vain. 
He thought to take his fon, and have him 

His council faid, your fon pray do not flay. 
And we will put you in a better way. 

Nicor refembles Barlaam in the face. 
Let him be brought before his royal grace. 
He'll think 'tis Barlaam, therefore Nicor muft. 
Tell him the heathen way is good and juft. 

And fay 'twas falfe what he had faid before. 
So by that means your fon we may reftore j 
And bring him fafe into our way again. 
Then he the chriftian faith will quite difdain. 

Let all the chriftians which confined are. 
Be brought into your royal palace rare. 
To hear the ftrong difpute j when this is done. 
They'll all turn heathens with the prince your 

Then Nicor being fent for to the court. 
The King unto his fon gave this report : 


( 54 ) 

Barlaam is taken which thou foon Ihalt fee. 
Then faid the prince, this news rejoiceth me. 

So foon as Nicor to the court was brought, 
The prince was filled with a jealous thought. 
It was not Barlaam, fometimes he thought he 

Then he began to plead the heathen's caufe. 

The prince before them all, faid, wicked elf. 
What art thou come to plead againft thyfelf ? 
Except thou doll the chriftian faith maintain. 
This very day by me thou fhalt be llain. 

Remember David, God anointed King, 
Who flew the proud Philiftines with a fling : 
If thou art ne'er fo flrong, aflured I be, 
Into my hands God will deliver thee. 

Said Nicor, I was fent you to deceive. 
The Devil brought me here I do believe : 
I am not Barlaam, Nicor is my name. 
Brought up a heathen lord, the more's my Ihame. 

No more I'll be a heathen for my part. 
But ferve the chrifl:ian God with all my heart : 
The pagans down their heathen books did fling 
And burnt their Gods in prefence of the King. 


( 55 ) 


The converjion of King Avenerio, which caufed 
the go/pel of Chri/l to be publicly manifefled 
throughout the whole land. 

EEING thefe things the King aloud did cry 
^ O ! what a wretched linful man am I ? 
Againft the holy word of truth to fight, 

1 find the chriftian faith is pure and right. 

Againft that faith I will no longer hold : 
O blefled be the wife men that foritold. 
What was degreed at the fweet righteous birth. 
The bleffed'ft child that ere was born on earth : 

Dear fon, behold I fall down at thy feet. 
Hoping thou wilt by prayer to God intreat 
In my behalf to cleanfe my finful foul. 
Which has been long polluted vain and foul. 

Rife up dear father, then the prince did fay, 
I'll beg of God to waih your fins away. 
My heart is cheer'd to fee fuch change in you. 
The thoughts do more and more my joys renew. 

Father, it was God's will I Ihould be fent 
To fave you from the dreadful puniftiment 
Of hell's hot fire which does poor fouls defl:roy. 
We fhall be crown 'd with everlafl:ing joy. 

Churches were built the land became divine. 

Then did the righteous gofpel fpread and fliine ; 


( 56 ) 

The poor confined chriftians were fet free. 
In chriflian love the land did foon agree. 

Death call'd the king down to his filent tomb, 
Jehofaphat reigned in his father's room, 
And was by all his fubjeds dearly lov'd 
Becaufe the word of Chrift was well approv'd. 

Thus for fome time he did the faith defend. 
But in that land his life he did not end j 
But to Alfanes did his throne refign. 
That he might keep it holy and divine. 

For fear that worldly pleafures which are vain 
In any wife fliould draw him back again, 
He fought out Barlaam to be fatisfy'd. 
In lonefome deferts he with hermits dy'd. 

The people griev'd for lofs of their good prince. 
But good Alfanes Hood in the defence 
Of the true faith, which is divine and pure. 
And ever fhall from age to age endure. 

All we who in a chrifl:ian nation dwell 
Should mind God's word, and prize it very well 
And not abufe it as we daily do. 
For fear juft punifliment Ihould us purfue. 

Since mighty miracles fo plain are feen. 
Let's beg of God for faith to make us clean ; 
That after death our fouls may live on high 
With JESUS CHRIST to all Eternity. 


PHnted by BALLANTYNE, HANSON & CO., Edinbursh and London